The content presented is an illustrative list and provides a guide for teachers to use and/or modify in order to meet the needs of their learning community. As children grow and develop at different rates and come to Kindergarten with vastly different experiences, it is acknowledged that all children will achieve differently. Educators should be committed to equity and believe in children's capacity to succeed regardless of diverse circumstances and abilities.

Children in the Kindergarten year are effective communicators when they:

View All
FocusThis is evident, for example, when children:
Build aural and oral language
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • sustain conversations with others in different situations
  • use speech that can be understood by others
  • listen to others
  • act upon simple instructions and statements
  • develop auditory discrimination, for example able to identify environmental sounds
  • modulate voice appropriate to the situation
  • use simple sentences when speaking
  • use turn-taking in conversations
  • increase use of vocabulary by exploring meanings of new words and talk about language (metalanguage)
  • know that languages other than English are used in the home, school and community environment
  • use simple non-verbal ways of communicating through gesture and signs
Develop phonological awareness skills
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • know that spoken and written language can be broken into smaller parts
  • hear and clap syllables in simple words
  • investigate and explore onset and rime in simple CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant) words
  • discriminate rhyme in words
  • investigate and explore individual sounds and sounds in spoken words
  • hear and begin to identify first and last sounds in simple words
  • explore letter-sound relationships
Convey and construct messages for a range of purposes in a variety of contexts
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • verbalise ideas and simple concepts and ask questions to clarify concepts
  • retell a simple story
  • engage in discussion about narratives and informational texts
  • use imagination to recreate roles and experiences
  • explore common language patterns in narratives
FocusThis is evident, for example, when children:
Develop understanding of purpose and meanings of a range of texts
(connects to the English Curriculum
  • share a range of texts for enjoyment
  • explore the language presented in fiction and non-fiction texts
  • make connections between their own experiences and ideas in text
  • identify key ideas from simple texts
  • recognise simple literary conventions, such as setting and characters in narratives
  • predict what happens next in simple texts, and why it might happen
  • start moving from literal interpretation of text to inferential
  • join in with chorus from narrative and rhymes in narratives/nursery rhymes/songs/chants
  • investigate with assistance how texts present particular views such as gender, stereotypes and diversity
  • recognise and engage with written and oral constructed texts
Engage in reading, writing and viewing behaviours
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • use images, marks and approximations of letters and words to convey meaning
  • show an awareness that print holds meaning
  • use books/texts appropriately, turn pages and identify the front cover
  • recognise familiar written symbols in context, such as road signs and their name
  • display reading/writing/viewing like behaviours in play and experiences
  • use, engage with and share the enjoyment of language and texts in a range of ways
FocusThis is evident, for example, when children:
Develop concepts of print
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • build an understanding that print is constant and a reader moves (in English) left to right and top to bottom with a return sweep
  • describe how the illustrations connect to the text
  • identify simple punctuation, such as full stops and question marks
  • become aware that words are separated by spaces
  • build an understanding of book features, such as the title, author, illustrator
  • become aware that sentences are made up of words, that words are made of sounds and sounds are represented by letters or groups of letters
Investigate symbols and pattern systems
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • recognise simple patterns and relationships
  • recognise some letter names, for example the letters in their own name
  • become aware that numbers are different from letters
  • use symbols in play to represent and make meaning
  • identify patterns in the environment
  • copy simple patterns
FocusThis is evident, for example, when children:
View and create with media
(connects to the English Curriculum
  • view and listen to simple printed, visual and multimedia texts and music
  • express ideas and feelings and make meaning using creative arts, such as drawing, painting, sculpture, drama, dance movement, music and storytelling
Investigate the properties of a range of media
(connects to the English Curriculum)
  • explore music with a variety of instruments or improvised musical instruments
  • experiment with elements of texture, colour, shape, space and form in two or three dimensions
FocusThis is evident, for example, when children:
Use tools, resources and technologies in play, thinking and learning
(connects to the Technologies Curriculum
  • use a range of tools, technologies and resources safely and appropriately
  • explore simple systems such as mechanical systems (pulleys); organisational systems (recipe); environmental (reticulation)
  • create simple information for a purpose using tools, resources and technologies
Develop simple ICT skills
(connects to the Technologies Curriculum)
  • experiment with a range of tools, media, sounds and graphics in ICT play and discovery
  • develop simple skills to use information and communication technologies
  • engage with information communication technologies for fun and to promote thinking and learning
  • use imaginary technologies as props in their play