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processes developed by Brecht
- Scenography: his work was focused on the fusion of the human sensory experiences with the text in performance. His work with the actors and the non-actors was determined to increase the impact of the drama event emotionally as well as intellectually.
- Gestus: technique developed by Brecht whereby the actor presents a physical action that signals both the internal state of the character and also an indication of attitude or manner in the play.
- Historification: technique developed by Brecht in which an event in the past is selected and used to comment on events in the present. This process of signalling to the audience the parallels between the past and the present fit into the wider technique of alienation and encouraging the audience to analyse the action for thematic meaning.
- Textual approaches:
- Naturalism/realism: scenes in which the dramatic action and characters reflect many of the principles of naturalism and realism
- Direct address: break in the action to speak in character or out of character about events and issues central to the text
- Third person narration #: characters referring to their own actions using third person point of view. ‘Mother Courage: Mother Courage reaches down to pick a flower’
- First person narration #: characters referring to themselves in the first person, narrating the actions being mimed. ‘Mother Courage: I reach down to a pick a flower’
- Spoken stage directions #: to speak lines of stage direction (including design elements) to the audience. This may be done in character or not
- Song and dance: performance of songs or dance/movement pieces usually in support of important narrative or thematic elements
- Titles: opening a scene with an announcement of the main theme or purpose of the scene. These may be spoken or projected onto the performance space.