• discriminating meaningful sounds, morphemes and intonation patterns in words, phrases, statements, questions, commands, requests and exclamations
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences in the language to identify morphemes, words and phrases in speech and to match these with their written forms
  • using appropriate conventions of the written language, including punctuation, capitalisation, diacritics, digraphs to support links with spoken language
  • paying attention to consistency in target language spelling with reference to the sound system of the language
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to read familiar and new words out aloud from their written forms
  • noticing the various roles of the speech organs in the production of sounds in the language and comparing these with the pronunciation of English and other known languages