• distinguishing the purpose of a text and its features, for example, narratives are usually about journeys across Country and convey explanations about why features of Country exist and are important, while mud-maps are for conveying basic directions
  • investigating the purpose and use of sign language, for example, for hunting, for recent bereavements, for communicating at a distance, for restricting who can understand the message
  • understanding and using a combination of signs to convey a message
  • understanding that many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are primarily oral and conventions of written text are being developed
  • applying emerging understanding of text conventions using classroom models, for example, determining points in written versions of oral texts at which commas, full stops and paragraph breaks might be used
  • accommodating features such as repetition and parallelism that characterises oral texts in written language
  • recognising language features typically associated with familiar texts, for example, the use of imperatives in games, instructions and procedures, and the use of past and habitual tense in traditional narratives and recounts
  • linking ideas using appropriate grammatical forms, for example, connectives, serialisation, embedding
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon