• observing how language is used to establish, maintain and reflect kin-based relationships
  • recognising that there are specific ways of communicating messages that are linked with relationships, for example, deference and respect within families and for respected kin, such as speaking on the side, using indirect references, silences, gestures, eye contact, different registers and modes
  • investigating word taboo and reasons for their existence
  • observing that expressions can be made more or less formal and more casual to suit the relationship between speakers, for example, relaxed, joking styles used between brothers-in-law
  • noticing differences in the ways in which both target language speakers and English speakers communicate with different people, for example, with young children, with unfamiliar adults or with Elders
  • reflecting on how they communicate with their own family and friends and with people less close to them, noticing differences in language use and communicative behaviour