• translating and interpreting short texts from the target language to English and vice versa, comparing their interpretations and discussing possible reasons for differences
  • translating and interpreting a range of texts, such as narratives, song lyrics, dialogues, posters, using resources such as dictionaries and grammars and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding
  • identifying, using and explaining target language words and expressions that do not easily translate into English
  • demonstrating and explaining elements of non-verbal communication in the target language that require interpretation, such as hand talk, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, lip pointing
  • analysing published bilingual texts, such as children’s stories, health charts, films with sub-titles, commenting on differences between how each language represents meaning
  • identifying and explaining concepts, practices and expressions in the target language which do not easily translate into English, and vice versa, for example, number systems, time, colour daily and seasonal cycles, kinship terms, environmental sounds/elements/items/processes, such as ‘waving of bark in the wind’, noises that birds make
  • understanding and applying culturally appropriate and ethical behaviour when interpreting and translating the target language