• understanding case and case marking, for example, of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, noting the sharing of several case functions by single markers, the use of different markers for the same function
  • explaining how verbs can be derived from nouns and vice versa, and comparing with similar processes in English and other known languages
  • understanding how to construct concepts referring to people, places, things and events in building and varying the message, using:
    • suffixes, including ‘having’, ‘for want of’, ‘similar to’, ‘like’
    • verbless sentences, for example, equative, descriptive, possessive
    • verb categories, including intransitive, transitive, causative, inchoative, reflexive–reciprocal
    • verb aspect, including continuous, transitory, perfective, imperfective
    • verb-stem morphology, including compound verbs, reduplicated verbs, habitual/characteristic, derivation (for example, nouns into verbs).
  • expressing time, manner, attitude and place, using:
    • elaborations of past tense
    • temporal expressions, for example, ‘beforehand’, ‘afterwards’, ‘too late’, ‘originally’
    • expressions of frequency, immediacy and duration, for example, ‘persistently’, ‘at once’, ‘a few times’, ‘for a while’
    • attitudinal words, particles and interjections, for example, ‘ought to’; ‘I wish’; terms expressing endearment, embarrassment, ‘shame’, pity, including ‘Don’t know!’, ‘Really!’, ‘That’s all!’
    • locational cases as used in locative phrases, and extensions of these, for example, expressing origin, causation
  • structuring and linking clauses, focusing on issues of agreement with transitive and intransitive verbs and using verb-linking devices such as serialisation
  • discussing relationships between the target language and other languages of the region, for example, shared words and structures