• examining how elements of communication such as gestures, facial expressions, choice of language and use of silence vary according to context, situation and kin relationships, for example, eye contact, pointing with lips
  • recognising there are specific ways of communicating messages that are linked with particular relationships, for example, in situations of bereavement or childbirth
  • distinguishing different registers of language, for example, mother-in-law language
  • investigating constraints that guide forms of address and social interactions such as in certain kin relationships
  • analysing intergenerational differences in language use, for example, young people’s language when talking about popular culture, the strong ‘right through’ language of the older generation
  • explaining variations in language use that reflect different levels of formality, authority and status, for example, speech styles used with respected kin, ways of asking questions of different people
  • understanding connections between land, language and culture which are expressed by shifts between languages and varieties of language