• explaining the role of language in relation to culture and identity and in passing on knowledge, such as sustainable care of the environment, rules for living, ways of behaving, spiritual and cultural functions and History
  • reflecting on ways the target language community divides the natural and cultural worlds and comparing this to other indigenous and western systems of classification
  • analysing concepts related to cultural values in the language, including naming systems, such as kinship terms, nicknames, substitute words and pronoun systems, comparing to similar conceptual characteristics of their own language(s) and culture(s)
  • exploring how aspects of traditional culture and society have been preserved through the target language, and discussing the importance of maintaining Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for their speakers and for all Australians
  • identifying and discussing core cultural concepts reflected in Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, such as respect, avoidance, reciprocity, obligation, responsibility
  • understanding that culturally significant attitudes and beliefs conveyed through the target language are related to the past, to land, plants, animals and celebrations
  • identifying and comparing how attitudes or emotions or such as respect or embarrassment are shown/displayed/concealed across different languages and cultures
  • comparing non-verbal elements of communication such as the use of silence or eye contact in different cultural contexts and exchanges
  • considering how and why target language speakers use particular conversational strategies, such as indirect language to avoid conflict
  • recognising that there are multiple views on and partial explanations for many events and issues
  • reflecting on ways culture is interpreted by others, for example, by identifying how stereotypes influence perceptions among different groups and communities
  • understanding that each Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person inherits language as part of their birthright, along with membership of a particular group and attachment to Country or Place, and that they become custodians and owners of land, water/ sea and language