• using classroom resources such as word banks, wall charts, visual dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate the meaning of single words and common expressions
  • translating and explaining in English the meaning of target language words, phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations
  • explaining to others culture-specific words, for example, names of artefacts or implements, kinship terms of address
  • noticing elements of the target language and of English that are the same, such as the letters of the alphabet and some sounds
  • showing others how different signs and hand talk are used and explaining basic signs for elements of the natural environment, for example, water, animals
  • explaining symbols and their iconographies to others