• identifying people, places, things and events using:
    • nouns, for example, relating to family, kinship, items in the immediate natural and built environments
    • pronouns, for example, personal, interrogative, kinship and demonstrative
    • verbs for simple actions, states and processes
    • terms to qualify and quantify, for example, size, colour, number, or to classify or compare things
    • adverbs, for example, of location, time and manner
    • simple negation
  • identifying particular forms and structures in the language, for example, those that specify, identify and describe objects and actions, time and place; those that state ownership, ask questions, convey commands
  • noticing that compared to English and other known languages some words may be left out (ellipsis), or must be included or repeated in phrases and sentences, for example, “(it) went”, “big (dog) ate (it)”
  • becoming aware how word order may differ from English or other known languages, for example, noun + qualifier vs qualifier + noun, ’child happy’ vs ’happy child’
  • recognising the use of common affixes to nouns, for example, ’the man’s dog’, ’to the river’, ’in the sea’
  • recognising the use of common affixes on verbs, for example, to indicate tense and mood
  • recognising influences across Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, shared words
  • understanding and using elementary metalanguage to describe word types, for example, noun, pronoun, verb