• using visual or print dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate simple familiar texts such as labels, signs, captions, charts, posters, applying knowledge of grammatical rules and context, for example, by locating word stems or by removing affixes
  • translating texts, identifying culture-specific concepts and expressions that do not easily translate into English, for example, language related to artefacts, place names, landforms, kinship relations
  • explaining to others culture-specific words that do not easily translate, such as language associated with artefacts, implements and kinship terms of address
  • identifying words and phrases that have more than one literal meaning
  • explaining the meaning of art works and performances to others, including the use of symbolism