• identifying meaningful sounds, syllables and morphemes in words and phrases
  • confirming sound–symbol correspondences in the language by reading syllables, morphemes and words for meaning
  • using conventions of the written language, for example, punctuation, capitalisation, diacritics, digraphs, to support links with the spoken language
  • identifying morphemes, words and phrases in speech and matching these with their written forms
  • paying attention to consistency in the spelling of the language, with direct reference to the sound system of the language
  • noticing variations in pronunciation of the same word by different speakers and discussing whether this can be reflected in the spelling of the word
  • recognising that in some cases the original sound/parts of the sound of some words in the language may be unknown, considering possible reasons for this
  • understanding that other languages may suggest historical pronunciations for the language
  • learning that very similar languages may have different spelling systems, and how this may mask similarities of their sound systems
  • recognising which speech sounds are not typical for the language, and which sounds are very common, identifying where these can occur in words
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to read familiar and new words out aloud from their written forms
  • noticing the various roles of the speech organs in the production of sounds in the language, and comparing these with English and other known languages