• distinguishing the purpose and characteristic features of different types of texts, for example, stories are usually about journeys across Country and convey explanations about why features of Country exist and are important
  • understanding that for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages conventions of written text are in the process of being developed
  • recognising language features typically associated with familiar texts, for example, the use of imperatives in games, instructions and procedures, and the use of past and habitual tenses in stories
  • linking ideas using appropriate grammatical forms and processes, for example, connectives, serialisation, embedding
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon
  • investigating the purpose and use of sign language in various Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, for hunting, for recent bereavement, for communicating at a distance, for restricting who can understand the message