• reading aloud for meaning to demonstrate comprehension of sound–symbol correspondences
  • developing metalanguage to describe and talk about sounds and phonology, for example, place and manner of articulation, uncertain or missing sounds
  • investigating sound patterns, for example, consonant and vowel sequences, and word-level patterns, for example, allowable word-final sounds, allowable consonant clusters, word stress
  • understanding the major categories of place of articulation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, peripheral, laminal, apical, and their realisation across different languages and regions in Australia
  • establishing similarities in the sound systems of related languages otherwise masked by differing spelling systems
  • using their knowledge of alphabetic conventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages to transcribe spoken texts from a range of languages, for example, those related to the target language or those from neighbouring regions
  • comparing and explaining the relative consistency of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and English in spelling words
  • understanding the phonemic basis of alphabetic spelling systems and the fact that different sounds can be covered within a single phoneme or letter
  • exploring different writing systems that are based on different principles, for example, syllabic or ideographic