• understanding case and case marking on nouns, pronouns and adjectives
  • explaining how verbs can be derived from nouns and vice versa, comparing with similar processes in English and other known languages
  • composing and varying messages according to the available resources of the language, such as:
    • suffixes, including ‘having’, ‘for want of’, ‘similar to’, ‘like’
    • verbless sentences, for example, equative, descriptive, possessive
    • verb categories, including intransitive, transitive, causative, inchoative, reflexive–reciprocal
    • verb aspect, including continuous, transitory, perfective, imperfective
    • verb-stem morphology, including compound verbs, reduplicated verbs, habitual/characteristic, derivation (nouns into verbs)
  • expressing time, manner, attitude and place, according to the available language resources, such as:
    • elaborations of past tense
    • temporal expressions, for example, ‘beforehand’, ‘afterwards’, ‘too late’, ‘originally’
    • expressions of frequency, immediacy and duration, for example, ‘persistently’, ‘at once’, ‘a few times’, ‘for a while’
    • attitudinal words, particles and interjections, for example, terms expressing endearment, embarrassment, shame or pity
    • locational cases as used in locative phrases, and extensions of these, for example, expressing origin or causation
  • structuring and linking clauses, focusing on issues of agreement with transitive and intransitive verbs, using verb-linking devices, for example, serialisation and embedding
  • discussing lexical and grammatical relationships between the language and other languages of the region, for example, common words and structures
  • discussing grammatical and lexical contrasts between the language and English/ other known languages, for example, the figurative use of language, vocabulary associated with specialised domains