• noticing and distinguishing sounds of the language and matching these with written symbols
  • recognising when the language is being spoken and distinguishing sounds of the language from English sounds and other known languages
  • experimenting with sound patterns in song, noticing how words and expressions can be separated into syllables to fit different tunes and rhythms
  • reading texts aloud to strengthen their familiarity with sound–symbol relationships, experiment with rhyme and alliteration and with written representations of these features
  • recognising and imitating intonation patterns associated with statements and questions, and understanding how these are distinguished in writing
  • learning that writing systems represent sounds and meanings, and becoming familiar with how the alphabet associates individual sounds/ a range of sounds with particular letters/ combinations of letters
  • noticing the shared alphabetic base of the language, English and other languages, with some differences
  • learning the conventions associated with the written form of the language, such as spaces between words, direction of writing and page layout, and comparing these with written forms of English and other known languages
  • associating written forms of morphemes, words and phrases with spoken forms of the language