• understanding that words in the language have different functions, for example, words for things, words for actions, and that these functions are also found in other languages, such as English
  • identifying people, places, things and events using:
    • nouns, for example, family, kinship, plants/ animals, items in immediate natural and built environments
    • pronouns, for example, personal, interrogative, kinship, demonstrative
    • verbs for simple actions, states and processes
    • terms to qualify, quantify, classify or compare things, for example, size, colour, number
    • adverbs, for example, of location, time and manner
    • simple forms of negation
  • becoming aware of how word order may differ from English, for example, noun + qualifier vs qualifier + noun, ‘child happy’ vs ‘happy child’
  • recognising the use of common affixes on nouns, for example, the man’s dog’’, to the river’’, in the sea’’
  • learning the use of common affixes on verbs, for example, to indicate tense or mood
  • understanding and using metalanguage to describe word types, for example, noun, pronoun, verb
  • understanding that some parts of the language may have fallen into disuse and not be known today
  • noticing that new words can be formed from within the language itself, rather than borrowed from other languages
  • noticing that compared to English some words may be left out (ellipsis), or must be included or repeated in phrases and sentences, for example, “(it) went”, “big (dog) ate (it)”