• reading aloud to show comprehension of sound–symbol correspondences and flow of ideas
  • developing metalanguage to describe and talk about elements of sounds and phonology, for example, place and manner of articulation
  • investigating patterns such as consonant and vowel sequences and word level patterns, for example, allowable word final sounds, allowable consonant clusters
  • understanding the major categories of place of articulation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, peripheral, laminal, apical and their realisation across different languages and regions in Australia
  • exploring writing systems based on principles such as syllabic or ideographic