• noticing and distinguishing sounds of the language and matching these with written symbols
  • distinguishing sounds in the language from English sounds and recognising when the target language is being spoken
  • experimenting with pronunciation to capture and produce speech patterns within and across single words and phrases
  • recognising, imitating and distinguishing between intonation patterns in statements, questions, commands, requests, exclamations and song, and noticing how these are distinguished in written language
  • learning that writing systems represent sounds and meanings, and becoming familiar with the alphabetic principles that associate individual sounds/ a range of sounds with particular letters/ combinations of letters
  • noticing that English and the target language share the same alphabetic base
  • associating spoken language with written morphemes, words, phrases and sentences
  • recognising alphabetic conventions particular to the target language, for example, digraphs representing a single sound, diacritics that alter the regular value of a letter
  • experimenting with sounds in songs and noticing how syllables can be separated to fit different tunes and rhythms
  • reading texts aloud, showing knowledge of sound–symbol relationships