• navigating a text correctly, starting at the right place and reading in the right direction, returning to the next line as needed, matching one spoken word to one written word
  • reading aloud with attempts at fluency and intonation
  • attempting to work out unknown words by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge
  • predicting what might happen on the basis of experience of this kind of text; at the sentence level predicting the meaning on the basis of syntax and word meaning