• translating a range of familiar texts, for example, information from the health clinic, songs, reports, recounts, using visual and print dictionaries, word lists and pictures
  • transcribing short, simple spoken texts, such as instructions or procedures, for example, making a coolamon or fishtrap, digging for honey ants, identifying words and phrases that have more than one literal meaning
  • showing others how different signs and hand talk are used and explaining their meaning and symbolism
  • explaining visual design and performances to others, including the use of symbolism
  • translating texts such as songs and stories, identifying culture-specific concepts and expressions that do not easily translate into English, for example, language related to artefacts, landforms, traditional foods, kinship terms of address, name substitutes
  • identifying and explaining concepts, practices and expressions in the language which do not easily translate into English, and vice versa for example, the number system, time, terms for colour, daily and seasonal cycles, kinship terms, environmental sounds and elements such as noises made by different birds
  • translating and matching words to describe family and relationships in the language and English, finding examples of words that have no English equivalents
  • identifying and working out the meaning of unfamiliar English words and expressions used in other curriculum areas, including technical language, and discussing how they would explain their meaning in the language, for example, paper, bunsen burners, safe houses, GPS, photocopying, clicking and dragging
  • identifying and discussing contexts in their community where translators and interpreters are required
  • demonstrating and explaining to others elements of non-verbal communication in the language that require interpretation, such as hand talk, sign language, facial expressions, eye contact, lip pointing