• recognising cultural differences in ways of showing attitudes or expressing feelings when using the language, English or other known languages, for example, ways of showing respect, being polite, thanking or showing sympathy
  • describing how they communicate differently in the language, English or other known languages when interacting with different people, for example, with Elders, friends, parents, teachers, administrators, health professionals
  • comparing how they refer in the language and in English to other people, such as younger relatives, authority figures, in-laws
  • noticing how respect is shown to Elders in the community, for example, through the use of terms of address and expressions of deference, and comparing this to terms and expressions used in other languages and cultures
  • reflecting on the range of gestures and other forms of non-verbal behaviour used when communicating in the language or other languages
  • reflecting on situations where they switch between the language, English and other known languages, discussing why they do this, for example, when talking about different issues or topics, such as sport, food, music or social media
  • reflecting on the experience of being bilingual/multilingual, identifying benefits of knowing more than one language and considering whether moving between languages affects their sense of identity or ‘belonging’
  • comparing observations about how interacting in the language feels different to interacting in English, identifying different ways of socialising or communicating that seem to be culture-specific