• linking written morphemes, words and phrases with the spoken forms of the language
  • linking written devices/techniques to spoken differentiation between statements, questions, requests, exclamations, as well as to beginnings, pauses and ends
  • understanding how to use sound–symbol relationships and knowledge of spelling rules, compound words, prefixes, suffixes, morphemes and sound changes
  • recognising that there are constraints in the ways speech sounds may be ordered to form words, for example, sounds allowed at the beginnings and ends of words, what consonants may cluster together
  • making one-to-one correspondences between speech sounds, morphemes, words, phrases and sentences and their representations in written texts
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to read syllables and familiar words, phrases, sentences and extended texts out loud
  • identifying words from the language that have been borrowed by English, noting any difference in pronunciation that occurs as English words
  • paying attention to consistency in spelling, checking spelling using dictionaries and other standard sources
  • identifying different uses of commas in texts, including to separate clauses and items in a list
  • recognising and using alphabetic ordering as a storing and sorting device
  • noticing the role of parts of the mouth, nose and throat in the production of speech sounds
  • recognising the difference between vowels and consonants and the role of vowels in syllables
  • transcribing elements of spoken language using their knowledge of the language and its writing system
  • identifying words in the language they think would be difficult for a non-speaker to transcribe