• increasing and developing vocabulary across domains of language use, including synonyms and different forms, giving examples of the common word classes in the language and in other known languages including English, such as examples of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
  • describing how word classes are treated differently in the language and in other known languages, including English, for example, the use of:
    • number in nouns and pronouns (singular, dual, plural)
    • tense and mood in verbs (affixation and separate words)
    • case in nouns and adjectives and case agreement
    • order of words in sentences
  • discussing the formation of words, for example, the addition or change of a suffix or prefix to convey different meanings
  • recognising that languages from the same region may have words in common and identifying patterns in such sets of shared words
  • understanding that languages have systematic structures and are rule-bound
  • understanding that rules vary between languages, for example, in relation to word-formation, word order at phrase and sentence level
  • making comparisons and identifying patterns in and between languages, for example, free and fixed word order, tense in verbs, use of affixes versus prepositions
  • noticing similarities between particular vocabulary sets in languages from the same region, such as words for body parts
  • developing metalanguage for talking about language, for example, noun phrases, word order, suffixes, prefixes, tense, transitivity
  • identifying in which areas of vocabulary the language has many more words than English, and vice versa, explaining possible reasons for this
  • demonstrating main topical areas of vocabulary, for example, groupings of natural species, cardinal directions, kinship system, and contrast these with English vocabulary groupings