• distinguishing the purpose of a text and its features, for example, narratives are usually about journeys across Country/Place and convey explanations of features of Country/Place, mud-maps are for conveying basic directions
  • investigating the purpose and use of sign language, for example, for hunting, for recently bereaved, for communicating at a distance, for restricting who can understand the message
  • applying emerging knowledge of text conventions using classroom models, for example, determining points in written versions of oral texts at which commas, full stops and paragraph breaks might be used; accommodating in written texts the repetition and parallelism that characterise oral texts
  • recognising language features typically associated with familiar texts, for example, the use of imperatives in games, instructions and procedures, and the use of past tense in traditional narratives and recounts
  • linking ideas using appropriate grammatical forms, for example, connectives, serialisation, embedding
  • sequencing content according to text structure
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon
  • noticing differences between spoken and written texts, for example, by comparing a written story with a spoken version of the same story
  • becoming familiar with the conventions of a range of text types, for example, narratives and instructions