• showing awareness that languages carry cultural ides and values, for example, through culture-specific words, styles of addressing people, use of silence, speech prohibitions, respect, land-language associations, and non-verbal communicative behaviours
  • identifying terms of address or expressions that reflect community values and traditions, for example, at ceremonies, during sorry business, when visiting other Countries, or when visiting significant sites on Country/Place
  • recognising/noticing how family and community values and behaviours, such as familiarity, mutual obligation, reciprocity, deference or respect and caring for Country/Place are conveyed in the language
  • recognising that the language has various social, spiritual and cultural functions in their community
  • recognising that in each culture there are general rules about what to say and do, when, where, with whom, and that these rules differ from culture to culture
  • comparing elements of communication, such as the role of silence or eye contact, in different cultural contexts and exchanges
  • understanding that people ‘read’ intercultural experiences in different ways depending on their own cultural perspectives, recognising the validity of different perspectives and questioning notions of ‘right’ or wrong’ ideas
  • investigating how their community expresses its relationship with the natural environment through language, for example, with seasons, stars, reef, rivers, waterholes, plants and animals
  • understanding that Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages are storehouses of cultural, environmental and social knowledge
  • recognising that song and song language play a central role as keeping-places of knowledge
  • understanding that the language has a rich oral literature, which recounts the important journeys and events associated with totemic ancestors/important Elders, and understanding that these stories also map the land and the values of the culture
  • understanding and discussing the importance of story and the role of storytelling in transmitting language and culture
  • discussing the fact that concepts may be culture-specific, for example, referencing how relationships are structured, how time and quantity are expressed, how elements such as land, sea/water and sky are viewed, spatial awareness
  • identifying how the language categorises things differently from English, for example, in relation to generic and specific words for plants and animals, such as ‘tree’ or ‘kangaroo’ and, considering reasons for such differences