• finding examples of interactions which are more appropriate in their own language than in English or vice versa, for example, using their first language to talk about community activities, family relationships, social and cultural activities, using English to talk about school work, excursions to other regions, towns, and considering why this is the case
  • monitoring and analysing their use of their own language(s) and English in different domains of language use, for example, by keeping a record of when they use each language for different functions or in different contexts
  • identifying and reflecting on instances when using both their own language and English in the same interaction makes for easier communication, and sharing their reflections with others
  • discussing the different things they need to consider, change and accommodate when interacting with speakers of different language backgrounds, for example, watching for signals of misunderstanding, being mindful of different perspectives and traditions
  • comparing how their relationships with people of different generations, gender and language backgrounds influence their ways of communicating
  • reflecting on intercultural learning at school and intercultural experience in and out of school
  • reflecting on the experience of using the language in the school context, for example, by identifying elements of experience that provide new challenges, such as having to adopt the full form of language as opposed to young people’s talk or regional varieties at home
  • discussing the concept of shared responsibility as it applies to intercultural communication, considering how effective interaction and exchange involves elements of noticing, analysing, reflecting, responding and adjusting
  • identifying ‘repair and recovery’ strategies that can be used to respond to miscommunication between speakers from different languages and cultural backgrounds, for example, self-correction, apology, asking for repetition and clarification, rephrasing
  • sharing and comparing cultural and intercultural experiences, and exchanging views on the benefits of speaking more than one language, such as having a larger vocabulary to draw on, additional insights and perspectives and opportunities for new/different experiences
  • identifying and comparing how emotions or attitudes such as respect, shyness, exuberance or embarrassment are shown/displayed across different languages and cultures