• reading aloud extended text to show flow of ideas
  • understanding the conventions adopted when citing others in language written for wide readership, and different ways of referencing these
  • editing their own texts for word-choice, spelling, grammar and punctuation
  • recognising how quotation marks may be used to mark parts of text as having special status, for example, quoted (direct) speech, and experimenting with the use of this device in own writing
  • comparing speech-sound constraints in different languages, for example, sets of vowel and consonant phonemes, allowable combinations of sounds, rules for word stress
  • describing the articulatory basis of speech sounds in their language(s)
  • developing a metalanguage to describe and talk about sounds and phonology, for example, place and manner of articulation, intonation, and word and sentence stress
  • understanding the major place of articulation categories in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, for example, peripheral, laminal, apical, and their realisation across different languages and regions in Australia
  • recognising phonological affinity in related languages that use differing spelling systems
  • using their expanding knowledge of alphabetic conventions to transcribe speech sounds, syllables and words from a wide range of languages
  • comparing published phonology charts for a variety of different languages, noting the associated writing systems
  • transcribing complete texts of spoken language, using a range of alphabetic and punctuation conventions, supported by their grammatical and vocabulary knowledge of the language
  • comparing and explaining the internal consistency of spelling systems for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and English