• explaining the full range of case marking in their language(s), such as the sharing of several case functions by single markers, the use of different markers for the same function
  • discussing the use of case and gender in English pronouns, comparing with their language
  • identifying and explaining how verbs are derived from nouns
  • explaining how references to people, places, things and events may be varied and modified by using extra words, or particles, or by using affixes, for example, expressions for ‘having’, ‘for want of’, ‘similar to’, ‘like’, and the various forms of negation
  • analysing and explaining the delineation of time, manner, attitude and place in their language(s), for example, temporal expressions such as ‘beforehand’, ‘afterwards’, ‘too late’, ‘originally’, and attitudinal elements such as ‘ought to’, ‘I wish’, and terms expressing endearment or disavowal
  • explaining issues of agreement with transitive and intransitive verbs, including devices such as embedding and serialisation
  • discuss the differing treatment of transitivity in the language(s) and in English
  • making comparisons and connections within and across languages, for example, case systems used within different languages in Australia and elsewhere, the use of tense markers in verbs
  • demonstrating the main topical areas of the vocabulary, for example, groupings of natural species, cardinal directions, kinship systems, and contrasting these with English
  • discussing relationships between their language and languages of the region, for example, common words and structures
  • discussing some contrasts between their own language and English in relation to grammar, discourse structure and figurative use of language