• explaining the role of language in relation to culture and identity, and in passing on knowledge, such as sustainable care of the environment, rules for living, ways of behaving, spiritual and cultural functions and History
  • reflecting on the way their culture divides the natural and cultural world and comparing these to other systems such as other indigenous systems and western systems
  • analysing concepts related to cultural values in their language, for example, naming systems, kinship terms, nicknames, substitute words and pronoun systems, comparing to practices in other languages and cultures
  • exploring how language is important in maintaining traditional culture and society in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and to all Australians
  • analysing and discussing core cultural concepts reflected in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, such as respect, avoidance, reciprocity, obligation, responsibility
  • understanding that culturally significant attitudes and beliefs conveyed through language are related to the past, and to land, flora and fauna and ceremonies
  • considering how they use conversational strategies to avoid disrespect, such as using indirect language
  • drawing on their own experiences of using their own language(s) and English in different contexts to consider how language can be either empowering or disempowering and inclusive or exclusive
  • identifying and comparing how emotions or attitudes such as respect, shyness, happiness or embarrassment are expressed across different languages and cultures
  • recognising that there are multiple views on and partial explanations for events and issues
  • reflecting on the ways culture is interpreted by others, for example, by identifying how stereotypes influence ways of thinking