• recognising the sounds and syllables of familiar spoken words
  • learning with the visual support of writing how speech sounds join to form syllables, morphemes and complete words and phrases
  • learning that the writing system represent sounds and meanings, associating individual sounds or a range of sounds with particular letters and combinations of letters
  • recognising the letters of the alphabet and knowing that there are lower and upper-case letters and that letters are arranged from left to right
  • noticing that different languages may share similar speech sounds
  • using knowledge of sound–symbol correspondences to isolate and read syllables, morphemes and familiar words
  • recognising high-frequency sight words and morphemes
  • recognising special alphabetic conventions, for example, digraphs representing a single sound, diacritics that alter the regular value of a letter
  • using morphemes and syllabification to break up simple words and using visual memory to write more complex or less familiar words
  • checking for inclusion of relevant punctuation, including capital letters for sentence beginnings, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks
  • learning that written text in the language has conventions relating to words, spaces between words, layout on the page
  • using known words in writing and spelling new or less familiar words using developing visual and morphemic knowledge
  • reading texts aloud showing knowledge of sound–symbol relationships