Visual Arts

Illusion of motion created in 2D and 3D artwork, or incorporated into 3D or 4D artwork. Diagonal lines, expressive colour or diminishing scale of art elements or design principles can imply movement.


The aspects of a performer’s body used to construct character or role, make meaning, convey emotional qualities as well as communicate relationships. These include:

  • energy: the pattern of effort and commitment used in the creation of movement and non-verbal communication. Energy may be consistent and predictable, inconsistent and unpredictable or otherwise.
  • facial expressions: the shape and adjustment of face including eyes and eyebrows, mouth, jaw and head position.
  • gait: the impression of character and/or attitudes conveyed in the manner in which an actor walks and moves in the space.
  • gesture: involves movement of parts of the body that communicate meaning. Gesture often involves arm and hand movements such as indicating, waving or beckoning but can include shrugging of the shoulders, winking eyes etc.
  • posture and body alignment: the position of the body and sense of shape of the spine when standing or sitting to create role and character. Posture and body alignment affect the ability to move freely and use voice affectively.
  • proxemics: the manipulation of the physical and emotional spaces between actors and between stage and audience adds meaning to the dramatic action. For example, heightening the tension between characters, showing relationships and adding to the design of the blocking in terms of placing actors in relation to one another to focus audience attention, so that the audience can see and hear them.
  • shape: the overall pattern or impression created by the body including use of symmetry and asymmetry as well as the control of the alignment of parts of the body.
  • space: the use of the region immediately around the performer’s body in all directions (kinesphere) and through the performance area (dynamosphere).
  • time: the variation and adjustment of the tempo and rhythm of movement.
  • weight: the adjustment of movement to create a sense of force or, as in mime, the heaviness of an object either seen or unseen by the audience.