Audio codes: the sound within the shot or scene that creates meaning. - Dialogue: what the characters say and their interactions with other characters reveal the narrative to the audience. (e.g. an accent can represent the cultural context of a character). - Music: used to create feeling or atmosphere within a scene. - Sound effects: natural sound effects and digitally constructed sound effects can enhance the narrative and create realism. - Laugh tracks and applause tracks: used in a studio setting, this suggests audience interaction with the studio live performance. This enhances the experience for the audience watching the pre-record later.