Symbolic codes: elements within the frame or shot that carry symbolic meaning. - Costume: characters' costumes can suggest a period of time or occupation or character trait. - Setting: this can establish time and place and indicate possible action (e.g. a setting of London in 1940 would suggest a wartime narrative). - Body language: expression, gesture and posture can indicate how a character is feeling (e.g. a frown, crossed arms and the head tilted to the side may mean a person is confused). - Objects: the props used within a scene can create a sense of realism as well as adding meaning (e.g. the audience would make different assumptions about a person driving a Rolls Royce and someone driving a Ferrari). - Colour: used within a shot can carry symbolic meaning, which may be culturally specific. The use of the colour red can indicate danger in Western societies but happiness in some Eastern cultures. (Mise-en-scene: the combination of symbolic elements 'within the scene' that creates meaning).