Technical codes: the use of technology to create meaning within a shot or sequence. - Camera shots/shot size: extreme close up (frame or screen is filled with a portion of an image for dramatic effect or emphasis by drawing attention to one, essential detail), close up (focus of frame is the head and shoulders of character and is used to emphasise an important detail that the audience might otherwise miss or to show a reaction or what the character is saying), mid or medium shot (framing is from the head to waist of character and is used in news anchorage and interviews as it focuses attention on what is being said. It is also used to show the interplay between characters and good for showing action), long shot (or wide shot) and extreme long shot (also known as establishing shot) allow setting and action to be established. - Camera angle: low camera angle (camera is looking up at the character) this makes the character appear large and powerful, eye level shot (camera is eye level to the character) this represents a neutral viewpoint), high camera angle (looking down at the character) this makes the character appear weak or vulnerable. - Camera movement: camera pan (can follow the action) or zoom in or out (can be used to draw attention to a particular feature of a character, setting or object). - Shot duration: length of time of individual shots. (e.g. a long shot duration can create calm and peace whereas a series of short shots can create tension). - Lighting: manipulation of natural or artificial light can be used to draw attention to important detail because the eye will be drawn to well-lit parts of the frame. Light and shadow can also be used to create mood or atmosphere. - Special effects: often used to create realistic representations of implausible actions and settings or to manipulate images or shots for artistic effect (e.g. the use of ray guns in a Science Fiction film or a person surviving a fall from a 20 storey building).