Written codes: the way words are used, written and positioned helps to establish meaning or to enhance the narrative. - Signs: such as street signs are often used within the narrative for a particular meaning. - Titles and credits: the name of the media work, production crew and details contextualise the production context. - Text on screen: can establish the setting, or the authority of a character on a particular issue. - Headlines and captions: Newspapers and magazine headlines and captions use specific language for engaging with audiences, and are used to anchor the meaning to images. - Taglines and slogans: usually a one-line representation of a media work used in marketing. - Speech bubbles: comic books and strips place text in a bubble above a character's head to indicate dialogue.