Organising elements

The Literacy continuum incorporates two overarching processes:

  • Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating

with the following areas of knowledge applying to both processes:

  • Text knowledge
  • Grammar knowledge
  • Word knowledge
  • Visual knowledge.

These processes and areas of knowledge are used as the organising elements of the Literacy continuum. The elements are drawn from the Language and Literacy strands of the Western Australian Curriculum: English as shown in the table below:

Literacy Continuum Western Australian Curriculum: English
Language Literacy
Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing Expressing and developing ideas Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating Language for interaction Interacting with others
Creating texts
Text knowledge Text structure and organisation
Concepts of print and screen
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
Creating texts
Grammar knowledge Expressing and developing ideas
Language for interaction
 
Word knowledge Expressing and developing ideas  
Visual knowledge Expressing and developing ideas Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
Creating texts

Texts in the Literacy Continuum

A text is the means for communication. Texts can be written, spoken, visual or multimodal, and in print or digital/online forms. Multimodal texts combine language with other systems for communicating such as visual images, soundtracks and spoken word, as in film or computer presentation media. Texts include all forms of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC), for example gesture, signing, real objects, photographs, pictographs and Braille. The forms and conventions of texts have developed to help us communicate effectively with a variety of audiences for a range of purposes, and so texts in different learning areas can and do use language and other features in different ways.

Where the term 'texts' is used in the Literacy continuum, this should be read as the type of  texts particular to or characteristic of a learning area; for example, reports, data displays and procedures in Mathematics; models, diagrams, explanations and reports in Science; and narratives, descriptions, discussions and explanations in Humanities and Social Sciences.

The diagram below sets out these elements.

Organising elements for Literacy

Organising elements for Literacy

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This element is about receptive language and involves students using   skills and strategies to access and interpret spoken, written, visual   and multimodal texts. It involves students navigating, reading and   viewing texts using applied topic knowledge, vocabulary, word and visual   knowledge. It involves students listening and responding to spoken   audio and multimodal texts, including listening for information,   listening to carry out tasks and listening as part of participating in   classroom activities and discussions. It also involves students using a   range of strategies to comprehend, interpret and analyse these texts,   including retrieving and organising literal information, making and   supporting inferences and evaluating information points of view. In   developing and acting with literacy, students:

  • listen and respond to learning area texts
  • read and view learning area texts
  • interpret and analyse learning area texts.

The element of Comprehending texts can apply to students at any point   in their schooling. The beginning of the learning sequence for this   element has been extended by an additional four levels (Levels 1a to 1d)   to describe in particular the early development of communication skills. The descriptions for Comprehending texts at these levels apply   across the elements of Text knowledge, Grammar knowledge, Word knowledge   and Visual knowledge.

This element is about expressive language and involves students   composing different types of texts for a range of purposes as an   integral part of learning in all curriculum areas. These texts include   spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts that explore, communicate and analyse information, ideas and issues in the learning areas. The   element involves students creating formal and informal texts as part of   classroom learning experiences including group and class discussions,   talk that explores and investigates learning area topics, and formal and   informal presentations and debates. In developing and acting with   literacy, students:

  • compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • use language to interact with others
  • deliver presentations.

The element of Composing texts can apply to students at any point in   their schooling. The beginning of the learning sequence for this element   has been extended by an additional four levels (Levels 1a to 1d) to   describe in particular the development of communication skills. The   descriptions for Composing texts at these levels apply across the   elements of Text knowledge, Grammar knowledge, Word knowledge and Visual   knowledge.

This element involves students understanding how the spoken, written,   visual and multimodal texts they compose and comprehend are structured   to meet the range of purposes needed in the curriculum areas. It   involves understanding the different types of text structures that are   used within curriculum disciplines to present information, explain   processes and relationships, argue and support points of view and   investigate issues. The element also involves understanding how whole   texts are made cohesive through various grammatical features that link   and strengthen the text's internal structure. In developing and acting   with literacy, students:

  • use knowledge of text structures
  • use knowledge of text cohesion.

This element involves students understanding the role of grammatical   features in the construction of meaning in the texts they compose and   comprehend. It involves understanding how different types of sentence   structures present, link and elaborate ideas, and how different types of   words and word groups convey information and represent ideas in the   learning areas. The element also includes understanding the grammatical   features through which opinion, evaluation, point of view and bias are   constructed in texts. In developing and acting with literacy, students:

  • use knowledge of sentence structures
  • use knowledge of words and word groups
  • express opinion and point of view.

This element involves students understanding the increasingly   specialised vocabulary and spelling needed to compose and comprehend   learning area texts. It includes the development of strategies and   skills for acquiring a wide topic vocabulary in the learning areas and   the capacity to spell the relevant words accurately. In developing and   acting with literacy, students:

  • understand learning area vocabulary
  • use spelling knowledge.

This element involves students understanding how visual information   contributes to the meanings created in learning area texts. It includes   interpreting still and moving images, graphs, tables, maps and other   graphic representations, and understanding and evaluating how images and   language work together in distinctive ways in different curriculum   areas to present ideas and information in the texts they compose and   comprehend. In developing and acting with literacy, students:

  • understand how visual elements create meaning.