Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Framework: Second Language

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Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Framework: Second Language

F-2 Syllabus

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Second Language Learner pathway will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught and will need to be modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy acquisition. For young students at this level, learning typically focuses on the immediate world of their family, home, school, friends and local environment. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Language learning and use

The language is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy development. Learning in the two languages progresses at very different levels but each supports and enriches the other.

The language is used in classroom interactions, routines and activities and is supported by the use of visual and concrete materials, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play and imaginative activities, games, music, movement and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding and context for language development.

Oral language is developed through listening to the sounds, shapes and patterns of the language, through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games and through imitating and repeating sounds in aural texts as modelled by the teaching team, visiting Elders and community speakers.

Learners experiment with simple formulaic expressions and with one- or two-word responses and single-idea phrases to prompts and cues. As they progress to using language for interactions such as greetings, asking for help, talking about self, friends and family, or asking and answering questions, they notice that the language behaves differently in different situations and that speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using language for purposeful interaction.

Students learn about Country/Place and community by interacting with visiting Elders and community speakers when possible, and by engaging with stories and songs and other texts such as videos, maps and pictures. They learn about the concepts of kin and social groupings, and how these are symbolised in the natural environment.

Students learn to use appropriate respect terms and to demonstrate respectful and appropriate behaviour when interacting with Elders, community speakers and community texts.

Learners will recognise the same alphabet they are learning for writing English. They write by tracing and copying, forming letters legibly. They learn to read and write words and sentences independently using modelled language, for example, matching pictures with single words, labels and captions. The use of repetition and recycling in instruction helps children to identify high-frequency words and simple phrases and to recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts.

They begin to understand how the language works, to compare it with English and to understand its place in relation to regional and national language diversity.

Contexts of interaction

Across Foundation to Year 2, learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team, supplemented by some access to visiting Elders and community speakers. Information and communications technologies (ICT) resources provide additional access to language and culture experience.

Texts and resources

Children engage with a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital texts, which are short, clearly structured and supported by visuals and paralinguistic devices, for example, tone of voice, facial expression, gesture, with much repetition and recycling of structures and vocabulary. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in with song, dance, story and rap, and various forms of play, performance, conversational exchanges and activities mediated by language. Print and digital texts include stories, shared Big Books, songs, visual designs, photos, videos, environmental maps and wall charts and teacher-generated materials such as games, flashcards and items from both the local community and the target language community.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing learned language, and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement.

The role of languages

Learners are encouraged to use the language being learnt whenever possible in class interactions and daily routines with the teaching team, visiting Elders and community speakers. Using English for explanation and discussion allows learners to talk about differences and similarities they notice between the language and their first language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions about language and culture, to consider how they feel when they hear or use the language and to talk about how they view different languages and the people who speak them. This introduction to the ‘meta’ dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to consider different perspectives and ways of being as mediated by language.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact with each other, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers using simple language and gestures for greeting and farewelling, talking about self and family
[Key concepts: self, family, relationships; Key processes: interacting, sharing, listening]
(ACLFWC067)

Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement and gestures to support understanding and to convey meaning
[Key concepts: cooperation, play; Key processes: turn-taking, matching, choosing, cooperating, following instructions]
(ACLFWC068)

Interact in classroom routines and respond to teacher instructions
[Key concepts: routine, instruction; Key processes: participating, responding, following instructions]
(ACLFWC069)

Informing

Locate specific words and familiar phrases in texts such as charts, lists, photos, maps, and use information to complete guided oral and written tasks
[Key concepts: natural and built environment, community life, Indigenous knowledge; Key processes: identifying, selecting, sorting, matching, labelling, mapping Country/Place]
(ACLFWC070)

Give factual information using simple statements and descriptions, gestures, and captions
[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: labelling, describing, presenting, recounting]
(ACLFWC071)

Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of texts and respond through singing, reciting, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement
[Key concepts: storytelling, response; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips (IndigiTUBE)]
(ACLFWC072)

Create and present shared stories, songs and performances using familiar words and patterns and support materials
[Key concepts: story, performance; Key processes: retelling, singing, re-enacting, dancing, drawing, performing; Key text types: songs, dance, stories, paintings and visual design, performances]
(ACLFWC073)

Translating

Translate frequently used words and phrases using visual cues and resources such as word lists
[Key concepts: translation, similarity, difference, meaning; Key processes: noticing, identifying, translating]
(ACLFWC074)

Create simple oral, print or multimodal bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, labels and wall charts
[Key concepts: meaning, bilingualism; Key processes: labelling, captioning, displaying, matching]
(ACLFWC075)

Identity

Describe aspects of self, such as family, school/class and language/s spoken, noticing how these different elements contribute to one’s identity
[Key concepts: identity, self, family, belonging; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying]
(ACLFWC076)

Reflecting

Notice what is similar or different to their own language and cultural expression when interacting with songs, stories, games, pictures and artistic expression from the target language and culture
[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity, difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, responding, reflecting]
(ACLFWC077)

Understanding

Systems of language

Notice and imitate characteristic sounds, intonation patterns and rhythms of the target language(s) and how these relate to the written language
[Key concepts: pronunciation, rhythm, intonation, writing; Key processes: imitating, noticing, distinguishing, reading aloud]
(ACLFWU078)

Notice types of words in the target language and understand and use some elements of the target language structure
[Key concepts: word function, word order, variation, patterns, rules; Key processes: identifying, recognising, noticing]
(ACLFWU079)

Recognise there are many ways of communicating messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
[Key concepts: communication, narrative; Key processes: recognising, identifying]
(ACLFWU080)

Identify elements of the kinship system and its role in linking story and natural species and phenomena
[Key concepts: kinship, totemic relationships, place, cultural practices; Key processes: identifying, recognising]
(ACLFWU081)

Language variation and change

Recognise that different words and language forms are used to address and communicate with people according to relationship and context
[Key concepts: kinship, context, relationship; Key processes: noticing, recognising]
(ACLFWU082)

Recognise that languages borrow words from each other
[Key concepts: relatedness, word borrowing; Key processes: identifying, recognising, comparing]
(ACLFWU083)

Language awareness

Identify the region of the target language and notice how it is part of the broader regional and national language diversity
[Key concepts: linguistic diversity, language revival; Key processes: identifying, recognising]
(ACLFWU084)

Understand that language belongs to communities and that language learning requires the application of respectful and appropriate behaviour
[Key concepts: ownership, belonging, respect; Key processes: demonstrating, applying]
(ACLFWU085)

Role of language and culture

Notice that people use language in ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them
[Key concepts: Country/Place, Language, Culture, symbol; Key processes: noticing, recognising, questioning, making connections]
(ACLFWU086)

Role of language building

Recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are transmitted from generation to generation
[Key concept: oral transmission; Key processes: noticing, recognising, considering, valuing]
(ACLFWU087)

Achievement standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of languages that may be learnt as an L2 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teaching team, visiting Elders and community members to talk about themselves, family, friends and immediate environment using familiar language supported by gestures. When interacting with Elders and community speakers, they use appropriate forms of address and terms of respect. They use movement, gestures and rehearsed language to participate in guided group activities, such as adapting and performing action songs. They interact in familiar classroom routines by responding to requests, following instructions and using routine classroom language, for example, to request classroom objects. Students listen to, read, view and comprehend texts that are short, clearly structured and supported by visuals and paralinguistic elements, for example, tone of voice, facial expression, gesture and repetition and recycling of structures and vocabulary. They demonstrate their understanding of the target language region, for example, by making simple statements and giving descriptions of animals, food and artefacts, labelling and sorting these into categories, or by pointing to key topographical features on a map or at pictures of food sources, plants and animals in response to questions. They respond to texts such as stories, songs, dance and visual art through singing, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement. They demonstrate understanding by naming key characters, significant places, landscapes or topographical features and by identifying key messages. Students use familiar words, patterns and support materials to create and present shared stories, songs and performances. They translate and explain in English the meaning of target language words, simple phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations. They create simple bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, labels and wall charts. They identify markers of their own identity, such as family, school/class and language/s, and compare these to the importance of language, place and family in the formation of identity in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Students identify similarities and differences in the ways they interact when communicating in English and the target language.

Students distinguish between the sounds of the target language and English and link sounds to written symbols and conventions. They use simple metalanguage to describe elemental structures of the target language, such as word order and word types. They identify how messages in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages can be communicated in a number of ways, such as Elders’ story-telling or through song, dance and visual design. Students identify kinship terms used for immediate family members and recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have their own personal relationships with place, natural species and phenomena. They identify which stories belong to which natural features, including animals and natural species. They know that different forms of address and kinship terms are used and depend on relationship and context. They identify some words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages. They identify regions, places and communities where the target language is spoken and recognise that there are many different languages spoken in their class, their local community and in Australia. They recognise that language speakers are the most important primary source of language knowledge and that language use reflects where and how people live and what is important to them.



3-6 Syllabus

Years 3 to 6 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Second Language Learner pathway will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught and will need to be modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their membership of various groups. They are widening their social networks, experiences and communicative repertoires. They are gaining greater awareness of the world around them. They benefit from various forms of activity-based learning that build on their interests and capabilities, and make connections with other learning areas.

Language learning and use

Learners use formulaic phrases in the target language to participate in classroom routines, presentations and structured conversations with the teaching team, peers, visiting Elders and community speakers. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games, and follow instructions and procedures.

They focus on aspects of their personal worlds and are introduced to content related to the target language Country/Place and the communities where it is spoken.

The development of oral proficiency relies on rich language input. Learners engage in different types of listening and develop active-listening and comprehension skills using contextual, grammatical, phonic and non-verbal cues. They extend their oral fluency by focusing on sentence-level intonation and stress.

They participate in shared and guided reading and learn to apply their knowledge of key words and textual features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar language. Learners use modelled language to create new texts and to extend their language use through expanding and connecting sentences to express more complex ideas and situations. To support their developing knowledge of vocabulary and sentence construction, learners continue to build metalanguage for describing aspects of the target language and how it works.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team. Learners may have some access to visiting Elders and community speakers, opportunities to communicate with peers in the target language region using technology, perhaps visit the target language region themselves, or view touring performances or art displays from there.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of visual, spoken, written and digital texts, such as photographs, maps, bush calendars, seasonal charts, posters, songs, raps, dances, stories, paintings and visual design accompanying performance, video clips and films.

Level of support

The primary support for learners is the teaching team, which provides instruction, explanation, examples of modelled language use, repetition, reinforcement and feedback on student work. Learning experiences and activities are carefully scaffolded and resourced, with sufficient time allowed for experimentation, drafting and redrafting. Learners need practice and guidance in using resources such as dictionaries, word charts, vocabulary lists and exemplars when translating and creating texts.

The role of languages

Learners use the target language for classroom routines and language learning tasks, for listening to, reading and viewing texts and in interactions with the teaching team, visiting Elders and other community speakers.

The language of response varies according to the nature and demands of the learning experience, with the target language used primarily for communicating in structured and supported tasks and English and other known languages used for open-ended, comparative tasks that develop learners’ understanding of language and culture.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers about aspects of their personal worlds, such as experiences at school, home, everyday routines and favourite pastimes, interests and activities
[Key concepts: relationship, kinship, family, experience; Key Processes: describing, sharing, responding, recounting]
(ACLFWC088)

Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions, making things, cooperating with peers, planning for and conducting shared events or activities or presenting at a school performance
[Key concepts: collaboration, planning; Key processes: compiling, rehearsing, presenting, making]
(ACLFWC089)

Participate in everyday classroom activities and routines, such as responding to questions and requests, asking permission, requesting help, praising or complimenting one another and apologising
[Key concepts: routine, interaction; Key processes: responding, contributing, enquiring]
(ACLFWC090)

Informing

Gather, classify and compare information from a range of sources associated with the target language Country/Place, community and daily life
[Key concepts: community life, leisure, environment, Indigenous knowledge, health and well-being; Key processes: identifying, researching, compiling, presenting, tabulating, categorising, giving directions]
(ACLFWC091)

Convey information on specific topics using formats such as oral or digital presentations, displays, diagrams, timelines and guided descriptions
[Key concepts: Country/Place, community life; Key processes: creating, presenting, profiling]
(ACLFWC092)

Creating

Listen to, read and view different real and imaginative texts, identifying and making simple statements about key elements, characters and events, and interpreting cultural expressions and behaviours
[Key concepts: visual design, representation, journey; Key processes: participating, describing, predicting, recalling, responding, listening, shared/guided reading; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips]
(ACLFWC093)

Create and present imaginative texts that use familiar expressions and modelled language for a range of audiences
[Key concepts: imagination, entertainment; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing, storytelling; Key text types: raps, songs, performances, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual design]
(ACLFWC094)

Translating

Translate simple texts from the target language into English and vice versa, identifying elements which require interpretation rather than translation and involve cultural references
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: translating, predicting, selecting, comparing]
(ACLFWC095)

Create bilingual texts for the classroom and the school community, such as songs, picture dictionaries, photo stories, captions for images and displays
[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression; Key processes: performing, describing, code-mixing, captioning]
(ACLFWC096)

Identity

Interact with others, noticing how ways of communicating with and responding to each other shape and reflect identity
[Key concepts: identity, kinship, community, membership; Key processes: creating, representing, comparing]
(ACLFWC097)

Reflecting

Notice and describe some ways in which the target language and associated communicative behaviours are similar or different to their own language(s) and forms of cultural expression
[Key concepts: language, culture, values, similarity, difference, communication; Key processes: noticing, comparing, describing, explaining, questioning, reflecting]
(ACLFWC098)

Understanding

Systems of language

Produce sounds, stress, intonation patterns of the target language, using developing phonemic awareness linked to the writing system
[Key concepts; punctuation, upper and lower case letters, diacritics, intonation, spelling; Key processes: identifying, discriminating, noticing,listening, reading]
(ACLFWC099)

Expand vocabulary in the target language through word-formation and building processes, and recognise and use simple structures
[Key concepts; word formation, word class, grammatical person and number, negation; Key processes: noticing, comparing, applying, understanding, modifying meaning]
(ACLFWC100)

Understand that texts such as stories, paintings, songs and dances have a distinct purpose and particular language features, and understand and apply text conventions
[Key concepts: purpose, genre, text features; Key processes: recognising, identifying, distinguishing, applying, linking]
(ACLFWC101)

Understand the core role of the kinship system in social behaviour and the relationship between Place, History and society
[Key concepts: kinship system, ways of talking, human relationships, interrelatedness; Key processes: recognising, interpreting, discussing]
(ACLFWC102)

Language variation and change

Understand that speakers vary language forms according to kin relationship and context of situation
[Key concepts: kinship, respect, register, silence, taboo; Key processes observing, examining, explaining, investigating; noticing, recognising]
(ACLFWC103)

Recognise that languages change over time
[Key concepts: regional languages, language shift, language loss, borrowing and relatedness; Key processes: identifying, recognising]
(ACLFWC104)

Language awareness

Explore the language situation of target language communities and the diversity of language situations in Australia
[Key concepts: language communities, language transmission, language maintenance and development, language revival, change, sign; Key processes: recognising, discussing, investigating]
(ACLFWC105)

Understand that the use of stories and names in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages is culturally determined
[Key concepts: cultural safety, protocol; Key processes: recognising, observing, discussing]
(ACLFWC106)

Role of language and culture

Explore connections between identity and cultural values and beliefs and the expression of these connections in an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language
[Key concepts: Country/Place, cultural expression and transmission, values, beliefs, spirituality; Key processes: observing, making connections, discussing, investigating]
(ACLFWC107)

Role of language building

Understand ways the target language and culture can be maintained and strengthened in changing contexts
[Key concepts: language maintenance, and development ; Key processes: discussing, exploring, considering, investigating, languagebuilding]
(ACLFWC108)

Achievement standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of languages that may be learnt as an L2 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 6, students share information about aspects of their personal worlds, such as their family and friends, interests, everyday routines and experiences, using familiar language and modelled sentence patterns. They interact appropriately with Elders and community speakers, and applyprinciples and protocols of cultural safety when engaging with cultural material such as artefacts, works of art, texts and performances. When interacting in the classroom, they ask and respond to questions, request help, repetition or clarification, and respond to requests and instructions. Students locate key points of information and messages in a range of spoken, written, visual and multi-modal sources associated with the target language region, community and culture. They demonstrate their understanding of the language region, community and culture, for example, by labelling, organising and classifying natural objects, plants and animals from the environment, identifying and describing key features and landforms, seasonal characteristics, and aspects of traditional and contemporary ways of life. Students view, read and listen to stories, songs, dances and artistic traditions, and demonstrate understanding, for example, by describing characters and events, creating timelines, explaining iconographies and identifying key messages, comparing these to messages conveyed by stories in their own cultures. They recognise that ownership of songs, stories, dances and designs is determined by kinship and other social groupings. They know that song and story carry Indigenous knowledge in the context of Country/Place and family. Students use simple and formulaic language, with the support of structured models, to create short informative and imaginative connected texts in various modes and formats. They translate a range of community texts, such as signs, notices, health charts, posters, relying on key words, and they identify and describe culture-specific concepts and expressions. They create bilingual texts for the classroom and school community that explain target language words and related cultural ideas. They identify markers of identity across cultures and recognise the importance of language, Country/Place and culture to the identity and future aspirations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Students reflect on their own cultural identity in light of their experience of learning the language, explaining how their ideas and ways of communicating are influenced by their own cultural backgrounds.

Students know that the target language has its own pronunciation, spelling and grammar, and they apply this knowledge to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words and expressions. They use metalanguage for language explanation, for making comparisons with English forms, and for reflecting on the experience of learning the target language and culture. They identify the distinct purpose, language features and conventions of texts such as stories, paintings, songs and dances. Students demonstrate understanding of core elements of the kinship system and its role in social behaviour, by identifying and explaining kin terms, recognising that everyone belongs to certain types of sub-groups and recognising that interactions are patterned by these structures. Students know that language use must be adjusted to suit different contexts, situations and relationships. They provide examples of how languages change over time by identifying words and phrases borrowed from English and other languages, including words that are similar to or borrowed from neighbouring Indigenous languages. Students recognise that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are in various states of maintenance, development and revival and can give some historical reasons for this. They identify connections between identity and cultural values and beliefs, and explain the importance of maintaining and strengthening Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages for the particular community involved and for the broader Australian community. They make connections with their own experience when talking about languages and cultures.



7-10 Syllabus

Years 7 to 10 Band Description

The nature of the learner, the pathway and particular language

Languages studied in the Second Language Learner Pathway (L2) are typically languages used in spoken form as the language of everyday communication by whole communities across all generations.

The second language learner pathway has been written on the assumption that learning will occur off-Country involving students who are typically not from the language community and have little or no experience of the language and culture. They are introduced to learning the language at school as an additional, new language.

The language chosen for curriculum development should have a sizeable set of resources in a variety of media, such as local documentaries, bilingual narrative and descriptive texts, and educational materials in print and digital form. Learning is enriched and authenticated by interaction with visiting Elders and community speakers, and where possible visits to Country/Place. Information and communications technologies provide additional resources to support a range of language and culture experiences.

The curriculum content and achievement standards in the Second Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learnt as a second language. The content descriptions, content elaborations and achievement standards for the Second Language Learner pathway will need to be adapted for use with the particular language being taught and will need to be modified if the program occurs on-Country or if the learners are from the language community.

At this level, students bring a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with issues of youth, society and environment. They are increasingly independent and capable of analysis and reflection. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how the language could be part of these.

Language learning and use

Learners interact using the target language in classroom routines and communicative tasks. They give presentations and participate in conversations, with some preparation and support, such as cue cards. They use the language more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and revision. They acquire skills in analysing and translating increasingly complex texts.

Learners are extending the range and quality of their writing through increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

They are increasingly aware of connections between language and culture, noticing, for example, different language use according to kin relationships. They are learning to reflect on their own language and culture, and how identity impacts on intercultural experiences.

Contexts of interaction

Learning occurs largely through interaction with peers and the teaching team. Students may have some access to visiting Elders and community speakers, and may use technology to communicate with peers in the target language region, such as through a sister-school partnership. Some students may have opportunities to visit the target language region themselves or to view touring performances and art displays.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of visual, spoken, written and digital texts, such as photographs, maps, bush calendars, seasonal charts, posters, songs, raps, dances, stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, and films.

Level of support

Learners are increasingly aware of and responsible for their own learning. They continue to access and use resources such as word lists, modelled texts and dictionaries. Teacher feedback continues to support their receptive and productive language use.

Learners require explicit instruction in the grammatical system of the target language, supported by comparisons with English and other known languages. They also require opportunities to discuss, practise and use their knowledge. They monitor their learning progress, for example by keeping records of their learning, such as journals, folios or blogs, and use these resources to reflect on their language learning and intercultural experiences.

The role of languages

The target language is used for classroom interaction, language learning activities and experiences, and reflection on learning. English is used to support analysis, comparison and reflection; it is also the medium for expressing personal views at a level beyond learners’ range in the target language, such as justifying a position on a social issue or exploring and comparing linguistic and cultural practices and learning experiences.

Communicating

Socialising

Engage with peers, the teaching team and visiting Elders/community speakers to share interests, experiences and aspirations, to exchange information about teenage life and to express opinions and feelings
[Key concepts: experience, aspiration; Key processes: recounting, exchanging, connecting]
(ACLFWC109)

Engage in activities that involve collaboration, planning, organising and negotiating to take action
[Key concepts: event, experience, collaboration; Key processes: planning, organising, negotiating]
(ACLFWC110)

Interact in class activities that involve making requests and suggestions, seeking clarification, negotiating changes and expressing opinions
[Key concepts: opinion, discussion, respect; Key processes: requesting, negotiating, expressing, comparing, deciding, explaining]
(ACLFWC111)

Informing

Identify, analyse and summarise factual information obtained from a range of sources on a variety of topics and issues related to the region of the target language
[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, social and environmental issues, lifestyles, community initiatives and projects, community life; Key processes: summarising, synthesising, referencing]
(ACLFWC112)

Convey information about events, experiences or topics of shared interest, using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and contexts
[Key concepts: audience, Country/Place, community life; Key processes: describing, explaining, creating, annotating]
(ACLFWC113)

Creating

Interpret and respond to a range of real and imaginative texts by sharing personal views, comparing themes, describing and explaining aspects of artistic expression and how these relate to land, people, plants, animals and social and ecological relationships
[Key concepts: representation, imagination; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, describing, discussing; Key text types: songs, raps, dances, traditional and contemporary stories, paintings and visual design, video clips, films]
(ACLFWC114)

Create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts to entertain others, involving real or imagined contexts and characters
[Key concepts: imagination, journey; Key processes: creating, collaborating, performing, composing; Key] text types: raps, songs, performances, story, cartoons, advertisements, digital texts, video clips, skits, paintings and visual designs]
(ACLFWC115)

Translating

Translate and interpret a range of texts from the target language to English and vice versa, comparing their versions and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding
[Key concepts: equivalence, representation, meaning, interpretation, idiom; Key processes: comparing, explaining, interpreting]
(ACLFWC116)

Create bilingual texts in collaboration with others for the wider community
[Key concept: interpretation, bilingualism; Key processes: designing, explaining, classifying, glossing, annotating, composing]
(ACLFWC117)

Identity

Consider and discuss their own and each other’s experiences and ways of expressing identity, reflecting on how the target language links the local, regional and national identity of its speakers with the land
[Key concepts: identity, perspective, biography; Key processes: sharing, comparing, considering, reflecting, analysing]
(ACLFWC118)

Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions and consider own reactions when engaging with target language speakers and resources, and how these may reflect own language(s) and culture(s)
[Key concepts: intercultural experience, perspective, insight, self-reflection, ways of knowing and being, reconciliation, discrimination; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining, reflecting, choosing]
(ACLFWC119)

Understanding

Systems of language

Produce sounds, stress, intonation patterns of the target language, using a developing phonemic awareness linked to the writing system
[Key concepts; metalanguage, patterns, phonetic articulation, syllable; Key processes: identifying, reading, investigating]
(ACLFWC120)

Expand vocabulary and understand and use a range of grammatical structures in the target language, including inflectional and derivational processes
[Key concepts: system, grammatical case, affixation, voice, transitivity, particles, Key processes: explaining, constructing, compounding]
(ACLFWC121)

Investigate spoken, written and visual modes of communication and analyse the form and structures of different types of texts, including their use, function and relationship to social processes
[Key concepts: text structure, relationship; Key processes: analysing, investigating, linking, sequencing]
(ACLFWC122)

Investigate how connections between Law, story, ceremony, people and Country/Place are demonstrated and evident in community behaviour
[Key concepts: interconnectedness, human relationships, ownership, rights, responsibilities; Key processes: describing, explaining, investigating, exploring]
(ACLFWC123)

Language variation and change

Analyse variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships
[Key concepts: respect, silence, kinship; Key processes: examining, explaining, analysing]
(ACLFWC124)

Understand that languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with one another and in response to new needs and ideas, popular culture, media and new technologies
[Key concepts: contact, change; Key processes: exploring, observing, reflecting]
(ACLFWC125)

Language awareness

Investigate and compare the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages with Indigenous languages in other countries, and consider issues such as languages policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy, reform and multilingualism
[Key concepts: environment, boundaries, policy, revival; Key processes: researching, investigating, exploring, considering]
(ACLFWC126)

Understand and apply cultural norms, skills and protocols associated with learning, using and researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages
[Key concepts: ownership, ethical behaviour; Key processes: acknowledging, investigating, applying]
(ACLFWC127)

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how ways of using language are shaped by communities’ ways of thinking, behaving and viewing the world, and the role of language in passing on knowledge
[Key concepts: Indigenous knowledge, value transmission; Key processes: reflecting, exploring, analysing, comparing]
(ACLFWC128)

Role of language building

Investigate programs, initiatives and techniques that keep Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages strong
[Key concepts: language maintenance, development, building; Key processes: discussing, exploring, investigating, evaluating, languagebuilding, language engineering]
(ACLFWC129)

Achievement standard

The achievement standards for the Framework for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages First Language Learner Pathway are generalised in order to cater for the range of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages that may be learned as an L1 in the school context. The achievement standards will need to be adapted for use for specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken language to communicate with the teaching team, peers, Elders, community members and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They use language to access and discuss information on a broad range of social, environmental, educational, cultural and community issues. They summarise and justify points of view, and respond appropriately to the opinions and perspectives of others using reflective language. They use strategies to initiate, sustain and extend discussion by inviting opinions, elaborating responses, clarifying and justifying statements with supporting evidence. When interacting in different social situations and with different social groups, students use appropriate ways of talking, for example, using appropriate speech styles with respected kin or authority figures and in situations involving seniority and status, and more informal styles with friends and close family members. They use respectful language to negotiate, problem-solve and to manage different opinions and perspectives and to reach shared decisions in collaborative tasks. Students investigate, analyse and evaluateinformation from a range of sources and perspectives on topics and issues related to their Country/Place and community; they present their findings using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and contexts. They employ effective presentation strategies, including degrees of directness and length of utterance appropriate to the situation, and an appropriate restatement in accordance with spoken norms or developing written styles. They summarise main ideas and include varying amounts of supporting detail. They apply appropriate cultural norms and protocols when learning, using, recording and researching Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, and when engaging with cultural property. Students respond to stories, songs, dances and forms of artistic expression by describing main ideas, key themes and sequences of events and explaining how these relate to land and water, sky and weather, plants and animals, and social and ecological relationships. Students create a range of informative, persuasive, and procedural texts, as well as texts based on real and imagined experiences, in written, spoken and multimodal forms, such as reviews, reports, stories songs, conversations, brochures, blogs, and procedures for traditional activities. They use appropriate vocabulary and grammatical forms to link and sequence ideas to form meaningful texts, for example, serialisation, connectives, embedding; and apply typological conventions such as headings, paragraphs, fonts, formatting. Students apply culturally appropriate protocols and ethical behaviour to create, transcribe, translate and interpret texts, providing alternative expressions when equivalence is not possible and explaining elements such as language choice and variation due to dialect or register. They analyse and compare translations and interpretations of texts, explaining factors that may have influenced the translation/interpretation. They understand their role as contemporary documenters and users of the language, for example, by interviewing Elders and transcribing stories and placing them in safe-keeping places. Students explain how the kinship system maintains and regulates social relationships, and provide examples of how connections between Law, Lore, story, ceremony, visual design, people, and Country/Place are reflected in individual and community behaviour. They describe how individuals and groups affirm connections to areas of land and water and to individual places. They explainthe rights and obligations associated with these connections and how these contribute to individual and social identity and a patterning of community roles. Students identify the relationship between language, culture and identity, describing how personal and community identity are expressed through cultural expression and language use. They reflect on their own ways of communicating, discussing how these might be interpreted by others.

Students use metalanguage to describe isolated speech sounds and the phonology of languages as a whole, and to analyse a range of grammatical structures in the language. They edit their own work and use appropriate conventions to cite others and to reference external information. They explainvariations in language use that reflect social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships, different registers of use (for example, mother-in-law language), intergenerational differences, and constraints that guide social interactions, such as word avoidance and substitution. They provide examples of how languages and cultures change continuously due to contact with one another and in response to new needs and ideas, popular culture, media and new technologies. Students make comparisons between the ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and indigenous languages in other countries, in areas such as language policy, language rights, language loss, advocacy and reform, language revival and multilingualism. Students identify factors that serve to maintain and strengthen language use such as intergenerational collaboration and transmission, programs and initiatives in school and community, and explain associated challenges. They demonstrate their role as contemporary documenters of the language, for example, by interviewing Elders and transcribing stories, reminiscences, advice, ways of doing things, rules for living, and by placing documents in safe keeping places.



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