Chinese: Second Language

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Chinese: Second Language

Pre-primary year syllabus

Year Level Description

Students enter the early years of school with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. Typically, students come to Chinese: Second Language with little to no prior experience of the Chinese language and culture.

In Pre-primary students communicate in Chinese, interacting orally with the teacher and peers to exchange greetings, introduce and share simple information about themselves and their family members. Students interact with simple written texts, recognising and discussing examples of common Chinese characters. They participate in shared group performance of simple Chinese songs and rhymes, reproducing rhythm and playing with sound patterns. Students also participate in the shared reading of books and Chinese idiom stories, retelling these stories using images, illustrations and captions.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, recognising that Pinyin is the spelled-out sounds of spoken Chinese that uses familiar letters. Students notice and use vocabulary related to greetings, themselves and their family. They recognise some first elements of grammar to generate language for purposeful interaction such as that Chinese sentences have a particular word order.

In Pre-primary students recognise that while English is the official language spoken in Australia, Chinese is one of many community languages, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, which is spoken in Australia. They also notice similarities and differences between Chinese and English and begin to develop curiosity around the ideas of language and culture. Creative play in the classroom provides opportunities for exploring these differences.

Students learn Chinese in the early years through rich language input. Regular opportunities to revisit, recycle and review, and continuous feedback, response and encouragement assist students in the language learning process.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact orally with the teacher and peers, using learnt sounds, verbal and non-verbal responses and listen to and engage with teacher-modelled tones and rhythms in class routines, structured conversations and activities to exchange greetings such as 早、你好王老师再见

Introduce and share simple information about themselves and their family members, for example, 你叫什么名字?;我叫Anna;
我五岁; 这是我爸爸; 我爸爸叫

Respond to teacher talk and instructions, for example, 站起来 and 请坐
(ACLCHC001)

Interact with simple written texts found in familiar settings such as signs and labels, recognising and discussing examples of common Chinese characters, for example, 八、我、爸爸
(ACLCHC002)

Informing

Locate information in simple scaffolded models of spoken and visual texts related to their personal worlds

Recognise and practise tone, actions and gestures that support meaning and/or convey information
(ACLCHC003)

Locate factual information about their personal worlds in written texts and convey information using pictures, labels, familiar words, simple statements and contextual cues
(ACLCHC004)

Creating

Respond orally to simple Chinese songs and rhymes, reproducing rhythm and playing with sound patterns and non-verbal forms of expression
(ACLCHC005)

Participate in the shared reading of books and idiom stories, retelling these stories using images, illustrations, labels and captions
(ACLCHC006)

Translating

Share with others familiar Chinese words, phrases, sounds and gestures, noticing that they may have similar or different meanings in English or other known languages
(ACLCHC007)

Reflecting

Notice aspects of Chinese language and culture that are ‘new’ or ‘interesting’, and observe how relationships influence language use and own identity
(ACLCHC009)

Understanding

Systems of language

Notice the tonal nature of spoken Chinese and use gestures to enhance the differentiation of tones
(ACLCHU010)

Recognise Chinese characters as a form of writing that is different from other forms of written expression, for example, the Roman alphabet
(ACLCHU011)

Notice and use context-related vocabulary to generate language

Begin to notice some first elements of grammar, including:

  • using vocabulary related to greetings, name, age and talking about how they are feeling, for example, 你好, 再见, 我叫Anna; 我五岁
  • recognising adjectives to describe how one is feeling, for example,
    我很好; 我不好
  • recognising and using numbers 0-5
  • noticing that Chinese sentences have a particular word order

(ACLCHU012)

Recognise that language is organised as ‘text’, that can be spoken, written, digital, visual or multimodal
(ACLCHU013)

Language variation and change

Recognise that in Chinese, as in English and other languages, there are different ways of greeting, addressing and interacting with people
(ACLCHU015)

Role of language and culture

Recognise that Chinese is one of many major community languages spoken in Australia, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages
(ACLCHU014)

Achievement standard

At standard, students interact in Chinese with their teacher and each other through action-related talk, structured play, classroom instructions and routines to exchange simple greetings, such as 早、你好王老师再见, and to provide simple information about themselves, such as 你叫什么名字?我叫Anna. They participate in shared performance of familiar simple songs and rhymes, playing with sound patterns, with some guidance. Students identify most keywords and some phrases of spoken Chinese, and some keywords in written texts relating to their personal worlds. They convey meaning in spoken texts using tone, actions and gestures, and in written texts related to their personal worlds with some guidance. They participate in shared performance of imaginative texts, such as familiar songs and rhymes, and respond, with guidance, by reading and retelling stories. They share with others some familiar Chinese words, phrases, sounds and gestures related to their personal worlds, and explore how these may have similar or different meanings in English. They begin to talk about how Chinese feels/sounds different when speaking or hearing it spoken by others.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, identifying Pinyin as the spelled-out sounds of spoken Chinese, and exploring with guidance, the tonal nature of spoken Chinese, using gestures to enhance differentiation. They explore with some guidance, Chinese characters as a form of writing that is different to other written languages and identify some familiar Chinese characters in their surroundings, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students recognise and use vocabulary related to greetings, name and age, and talk about how they are feeling, such as 你好, 再见, 我叫Anna and 我五岁, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They begin to recognise and use some first elements of grammar including, recognising adjectives to describe how one is feeling, such as 我很好 and 我不好. Students develop number knowledge for numbers 0–5 and notice that Chinese sentences have a particular word order. They recognise that language is organised as ‘text.’ They recognise that there are different ways of greeting, addressing and interacting with people, and usually act accordingly. Students recognise that Chinese is one of the many languages spoken in Australia and around the world, and begin to develop curiosity around the ideas of language and culture.



Year 1 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 1 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required by students to communicate in the Chinese language and focuses on extending their oral communication skills. Typically, the students’ only exposure to and experience of the Chinese language and culture is from their school learning environment.

Students communicate in Chinese, interacting orally with their teacher and peers to talk about themselves, the members of their family, their favourite things and their pets. They recognise and copy high-frequency characters through guided group activities. Students locate key words and factual information in simple oral texts related to their personal worlds. They also locate and convey information about their personal worlds in written texts using pictures, familiar words and simple statements. Students engage with simple Chinese songs, poems and rhymes and respond by creating and performing their own simple Chinese songs, poems and rhymes. Students participate in the shared reading and retelling of well-known Chinese stories.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, recognising how the tones can change the meaning of words. They match Pinyin to known Chinese characters and recognise that Pinyin also has tones. They notice and use context-related vocabulary and recognise some first elements of grammar to generate language for a range of purposeful interactions.

In Year 1 students recognise that Australia is a multilingual society with speakers of many different community languages, including Chinese and that Chinese and English borrow words and expressions from each other. They know that language is used differently in different situations and between different people. They identify differences and similarities between their own and others’ languages and cultures.

Students learn Chinese in the early years through rich language input. Regular opportunities to revisit, recycle and review, and continuous feedback, response and encouragement assist students in the language learning process.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact orally with the teacher and peers, using learnt sounds, formulaic phrases and verbal and non-verbal responses to talk about themselves, the members of their family, their favourite things and their pets, for example, 你家有几个/口人?;
我家有四个/口人,我有爸爸、妈妈和哥哥;
我喜欢蓝色;我有一只狗

Express gratitude and apologies, for example,
不用谢/不客气;
谢谢;对不起;没关系
(ACLCHC001)

Interact with simple written texts, recognising and copying high-frequency characters relating to members of their family, their favourite things and their pets, for example,
妈妈、爸爸、哥哥、妹妹;我爱我的猫
(ACLCHC002)

Informing

Locate key words and information in simple texts such as video clips, games and songs and convey information in simple scaffolded models of spoken and visual texts related to their personal worlds
(ACLCHC003)

Locate factual information about their personal worlds in written texts and convey information using pictures, labels, captions, familiar words, characters and modelled language
(ACLCHC004)

Creating

Engage orally with simple Chinese songs, poems and rhymes, reproducing rhythm and sound patterns and respond by creating their own simple Chinese songs, poems and rhymes to convey ideas related to their personal worlds
(ACLCHC005)

Participate in the shared reading and retelling of imaginative short written texts for well-known Chinese stories such as Tadpoles Looking For Their Mama《小蝌蚪找妈妈》, or Pony Crossed the River 《小马过河》 and respond to the texts by captioning or labelling images and copying characters
(ACLCHC006)

Translating

Match characters to the meanings and sounds of familiar words, noticing that meanings are similar or different in English or other known languages
(ACLCHC007)

Reflecting

Notice ways of talking in Chinese that appear different to their own ways and aspects of Chinese culture that are different when speaking in Chinese such as behaviour, voice or body language
(ACLCHC009)

Understanding

Systems of language

Recognise that Pinyin has tones and reproduce the four tones, but not always with accuracy

Associate Pinyin with relevant characters taught

Recognise how the tones can change the meaning of words, for example, 妈 and 马
(ACLCHU010)

Recognise that each Chinese character has meaning, for example, 鱼 (fish), 鸟 (bird), 姐 (elder sister)

Copy or trace characters with attention to stroke order and direction
(ACLCHU011)

Notice the formation 上下、左右、内外、独体字 and spacing of characters such as 朋and 月
(ACLCHC002)

Notice and use context-related vocabulary and begin to use some first elements of grammar to generate simple spoken and written texts for a range of purposes, including:

  • recognising nouns for pets and animals, for example, 狗、猫、蛇、鸟
  • describing things using adjectives, for example,
    黄色、棕色、小、大、
    长、只、 红色的小鸟
  • expressing likes and dislikes, for example,
  • 你 喜 欢 吃 什 么…?;
    你 喜 欢 吃…吗?
    我喜欢吃…;
    我不喜欢吃…
    (ACLCHU012)

Understand that language is organised as ‘text’ and that different types of texts have different features
(ACLCHU013)

Language variation and change

Recognise that Chinese speakers use language differently in different situations such as when socialising with peers and friends or at home with the family
(ACLCHU015)

Role of language and culture

Recognise that Australia is a multilingual society with speakers of many different world and community languages, including Chinese.

Recognise that Chinese and English borrow words and expressions from each other, for example, typhoon, tai chi, bok choy
(ACLCHU014)

Achievement standard

At standard, students interact in Chinese with their teacher and each other through guided group activities, classroom instructions and routines to talk about themselves, their family, their favourite things and their pets. They use learnt sounds, formulaic phrases and verbal and non-verbal responses, with some guidance, to ask questions and make statements, such as 我家有四个/口人,我有爸爸、妈妈和哥哥 and recognise most, and accurately copy some, high-frequency Chinese characters related to their personal worlds, such as 妈妈、爸爸、哥哥、妹妹. Students locate most key words and information in simple spoken and visual texts and convey some factual information, with guidance, using simple scaffolded models of spoken and visual texts. In written texts related to their personal worlds, they locate and convey some factual information, with some guidance, using pictures, labels, captions, familiar words, characters and modelled language. Students engage with familiar songs and rhymes, reproducing sound patterns and creating, with some guidance, their own simple songs, poems or rhymes about their personal worlds. They participate with some guidance, in the shared reading and retelling of short familiar written stories and respond by captioning pictures or copying characters. When translating, they match most familiar spoken words to their written Chinese character and explore, with some guidance, how meanings are similar or different. Students talk about how voice, behaviour and body language may change when speaking Chinese.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, recognising and reproducing the four tones of Pinyin with a satisfactory level of accuracy, and showing some awareness that tone can change meaning. They match Pinyin to familiar Chinese characters with a satisfactory level of accuracy, and show some awareness that each character has meaning. Students trace and/or copy characters with a satisfactory level of accuracy, paying attention to formation and spacing. They recognise and use vocabulary related to their personal worlds and use some first elements of grammar to generate simple spoken and written texts, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students begin to recognise nouns for pets and animals. They describe things using adjectives, such as 黄色、棕色、小、大、长、只、 红色的小鸟 and express likes and dislikes, such as 你 喜 欢 吃 什 么…?.Students make some comments about how language is organised as ‘text’ and that different types of texts have different features. They recognise that speakers of Chinese use language differently in different situations and usually act accordingly. Students recognise that Chinese is one of the many languages spoken in Australia, and identify some words and expressions that Chinese and English borrow from each other.



Year 2 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 2 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 1 and focuses on extending the oral communication skills of students.

Students communicate in Chinese, interacting orally with their teacher and peers to exchange information about themselves, the members of their family, their classmates and friends. They participate in guided group activities, including sorting familiar and common Chinese characters according to their formation. Students identify and convey key points of information to complete guided tasks in a range of simple spoken and visual texts related to their personal worlds. They locate factual information about their personal worlds in written texts and convey information using modelled language. Students respond in oral form to simple Chinese stories, songs and rhyme, reproducing rhythm and sound patterns to express feelings. They create short imaginative written texts, captioning or labelling images with familiar words and simple modelled sentences.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, reproducing the tones of Chinese with increasing accuracy. They identify some characters that make up words and understand that each character has a meaning. Students notice and use context-related vocabulary and begin to use some first elements of grammar such as using the third person to introduce others, to generate language for a range of purposeful interactions.

Students recognise that all languages, including Chinese, continuously change over time through contact with each other and through changes in society. They understand similarities and differences between aspects of Chinese and Australian cultural practices and related language use.

In Year 2 students learn Chinese in the early years through rich language input. At this stage, play and imaginative activities, music, movement and familiar routines, opportunities to revisit, recycle and review, and continuous feedback, provide the essential scaffolding to assist students in the language learning process.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact orally with the teacher and peers, using simple modelled language and gestures to exchange information about themselves, the members of their family, their classmates and friends, for example, 我有弟弟,你呢?;我爱我的妈妈;她叫Anna;我的朋友叫Simon;她七岁;他喜欢黑色和绿色;
他有两只兔子

Follow simple instructions including, 排队;请坐; 合上书; 不要说话
(ACLCHC001)

Interact with simple written texts, including labelling images, copying characters from a provided list and sorting familiar and common Chinese characters according to their formation
(ACLCHC002)

Informing

Identify and convey key points of information using learnt key words and phrases to complete guided tasks in a range of simple spoken and visual texts, related to their personal worlds
(ACLCHC003)

Locate factual information about their personal worlds in texts and convey information using modelled language, visual and contextual cues
(ACLCHC004)

Creating

Participate in and respond to imaginative texts, acting out events, identifying and comparing favourite elements and making simple statements orally about characters or themes
(ACLCHC005)

Create short written imaginative texts using simple characters from charts and word lists, labels, captions and short sentences to describe characters or key events in planning a story
(ACLCHC006)

Translating

Identify equivalent or similar Chinese words, expressions or phrases for familiar objects or terms in English, to develop vocabulary
(ACLCHC007)

Reflecting

Notice aspects of Chinese language and culture that are ‘new’ or ‘interesting’

Observe how relationships influence language use and their own identity
(ACLCHC009)

Understanding

Systems of language

Understand that Pinyin has tones and reproduce the tones with increasing accuracy

Explain the use of Pinyin as a learning tool to reflect the sound of Chinese spoken language

Identify characters that make up words such as 老/鼠 (lǎo/shŭ)
(ACLCHU010)

Understand that words such as 熊猫 (xióng māo) have two characters, with each character having a meaning and that sometimes there may be one, two or more characters to form one word
(ACLCHU011)

Notice and use context-related vocabulary and begin to use some first elements of grammar to generate simple spoken and written texts for a range of purposes, including:

  • that Chinese sentences have a particular word order, for example, 我爱妈妈 is about ‘I’ and 妈妈爱我 is about ‘Mum’
  • using the third person to introduce others
  • describing people using adjectives, for example, body parts 头、头发、眼睛、眉毛、鼻子、耳朵、身体、嘴巴、腿, adjectives 大、小、长、短、胖、瘦 and colours 黑色、棕色
  • recognising and using sentences to describe, for example, 我的眉毛很长;他的头发很短;
    她有黑色的头发;我有两只棕色的眼睛
    (ACLCHU012)

Understand that language is organised as ‘text’ that takes different forms and uses different structures and features to achieve its purpose
(ACLCHU013)

Language variation and change

Understand that that Chinese speakers use language differently in different situations and according to cultural norms such as when at home with the family or in the classroom
(ACLCHU015)

Role of language and culture

Recognise that all languages, including Chinese continuously change through contact with each other and through changes in society
(ACLCHU014)

Achievement standard

At standard, students interact in Chinese with their teacher and each other through routine exchanges, guided group activities, instructions and transactions, to provide information about themselves, the members of their family, their classmates and friends. They use simple modelled language and gestures, such as 我有弟弟,你呢? and 我的朋友叫Simon. Students recognise most familiar words and some key phrases in simple spoken or visual texts related to their personal worlds, identifying some key points of information to mostly complete guided tasks. They locate some keywords and factual information in written texts related to their personal worlds and convey information using, with some guidance, modelled language. They respond to imaginative texts using simple verbal and non-verbal forms of expression, with some guidance, to comment on some favourite elements, characters or themes and create simple written imaginative texts using familiar characters and modelled language, with some guidance. Students identify some Chinese words, expressions or phrases for familiar objects or English words and begin to increase their vocabulary. They identify some elements of Chinese language and culture that are ‘new’ or ‘interesting,’ and some ways in which relationships can influence language use.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, reproducing the tones of Pinyin and identifying high-frequency characters within words, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They recognise and use vocabulary and use some first elements of grammar in simple spoken and written texts, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They recognise that Chinese sentences have a particular word order, such as 我爱妈妈 is about ‘I’ and 妈妈爱我 is about ‘Mum.’ They use the third person to introduce others and describe people using adjectives, such as 头、头发、眼睛、, 大、小、长 and 黑色、棕色.They identify some different forms of texts and some of the different structures and features of familiar texts. Students identify some of the ways that speakers of Chinese use language differently in different situations and according to cultural norms, and some of the ways that the Chinese language has changed over time through its contact with other languages and changes in society.



Year 3 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 3 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 2 and focuses on extending the oral skills of students. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

In Year 3 students require extensive support with their language learning. The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. The role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing is such that students can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. They repeat speech and sounds from frequent and consistent teacher modelling and produce texts using familiar words or phrases. Students are encouraged to use spoken Chinese as much as possible for classroom routines, social interactions and for learning tasks.

Students communicate in Chinese, interacting and socialising orally with their teacher and peers to exchange information about themselves, their family, interests and leisure activities. They exchange simple correspondence in writing to express good wishes, send simple notes and text messages. Students locate and convey specific points of information from familiar simple spoken and visual texts using learnt phrases and words. They locate information in familiar written texts using learnt characters. Students respond to and create simple imaginative oral texts that use gestures and modelled language. They create short written imaginative texts using simple Chinese characters, captions, labels and modelled short sentences.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, recognising the components of Pinyin (consonant, vowel, tones) and the Pinyin sounds associated with individual letters and syllables that differ from the English sounds for the same letters and syllables. They copy and use context-related vocabulary and apply some first elements of grammar in simple spoken and written texts. They begin to develop a metalanguage for Chinese to talk about language, using terms similar to those used in English.

Students are encouraged to describe their Chinese learning experiences and explore their own sense of identity and ways that they use language differently when they are interacting with different people. In Year 3 students require extensive support with their language learning. The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. The role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing is such that students can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. They repeat speech and sounds from frequent and consistent teacher modelling and produce texts using familiar words or phrases. Students are encouraged to use spoken Chinese as much as possible for classroom routines, social interactions and for learning tasks.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact and socialise orally with the teacher and peers, using modelled responses and correct tones to support understanding and to exchange information about themselves, their family, interests and leisure activities, for example, 你好,我八岁;
我叫James ;我住在珀斯;我哥哥喜欢踢足球;
你住在哪里?

Follow the teacher’s instructions to participate in learning activities and in classroom routines, for example, 注意听,请安静,听一听,说一说
(ACLCHC017)

Exchange simple correspondence in writing by adapting teacher-modelled language and using word lists such as expressing good wishes, sending simple notes and messages, for example, 生日快乐;
母亲节快乐
(ACLCHC018)

Informing

Locate and convey specific points of information from familiar simple spoken and visual texts and convey this information using learnt phrases and words, related to their personal worlds
(ACLCHC019)

Locate factual information in familiar texts related to their personal and social worlds, by recognising textual features and using other visual cues and report this information using learnt characters
(ACLCHC020)

Creating

Respond to and create simple imaginative oral texts such as puppet plays, for example,
The 12 Chinese zodiac signs《十二生肖的故事》,《饥饿的毛毛虫》,or song and dance shows, that use gestures and other movements, familiar expressions and modelled language
(ACLCHC021)

Create short written imaginative texts such as storyboards and cartoons, using simple characters and modelled short sentences that follow the basic subject-verb-object structure
(ACLCHC022)

Translating

Explain the meanings of high-frequency words and phrases, using gestures, actions and facial expressions
(ACLCHC023)

Reflecting

Talk about their own experiences of learning and using Chinese and explore their own sense of identity, including elements such as family, cultural heritage, friends and interests and ways of using language with different people
(ACLCHC025)

Understanding

Systems of language

Recognise the components of Pinyin (consonant, vowel, tones)

Recognise Pinyin sounds associated with individual letters and syllables, differentiating, for example, chī, piě, qù, cān and from English sounds for such letters and syllables
(ACLCHU026)

Reproduce key Chinese characters from familiar contexts exploring character construction, including counting the number of strokes and following general rules of stroke order
(ACLCHU027)

Recognise and use context-related vocabulary and use some first elements of grammar in simple spoken and written texts to generate language for a range of purposes, including:

  • that simple statements in Chinese tend to follow English word order, but that questions do not, for example, ‘Do you have a cat?’ versus 你有猫吗?
  • identifying family members and their Chinese characters in familiar texts, for example, 爸爸、妈妈、哥哥

Begin to develop a metalanguage for Chinese to talk about language, using terms similar to those used in English
(ACLCHU012)

Notice differences between simple spoken, written and multimodal Chinese texts used in familiar contexts and compare with similar texts in English
(ACLCHU029)

Language variation and change

Understand that different ways of using Chinese language reflect different regions, different relationships and different ways of making meaning
(ACLCHU031)

Role of language and culture

Recognise that Chinese is the official standard language of the People's Republic of China and in other countries and is spoken by communities in many countries and regions including Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam and the United States of America
(ACLCHU030)

Achievement standard

At standard, students interact in Chinese with their teacher and each other through class experiences, activities and everyday transactions to exchange information about themselves, their family, interests and leisure activities. They use modelled language to exchange some information, such as 他有两只兔子, and write simple correspondence by adapting teacher-modelled language, with guidance. They identify some specific points of information and some textual features in familiar texts and convey, with guidance, some information using learnt words, phrases and characters related to their personal worlds. Students respond to and create simple, imaginative texts using familiar expressions, modelled language and non-verbal forms of expression. They create short written imaginative texts using familiar characters and modelled short sentences, with guidance. They provide the meanings of some of high-frequency words and phrases, using gestures, actions and facial expressions. Students talk about their Chinese language learning experience, and explore ways of using language with different people.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, identifying the components and sounds of Pinyin with a satisfactory level of accuracy, differentiating, from English, sounds for similar letters and syllables. They reproduce key Chinese characters with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students recognise and use vocabulary and use some first elements of grammar in simple spoken and written texts, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They talk about how the Chinese language works, with guidance, using some terms similar to those used in English. Students identify some features of simple Chinese texts and, with guidance, make some comparisons with similar texts in English. Students show how the Chinese language may need to be adjusted to suit different situations and relationships. They identify some of the differences in using Chinese language that reflect the different places it is spoken or who is using the language, and identify some places where Chinese is spoken.



Year 4 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 4 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 3 and focuses on extending the oral communication skills of students.

Students communicate in Chinese, interacting and socialising orally with the teacher and peers to exchange information about aspects of their personal worlds, including their daily routines at home and school. They contribute to class activities and request assistance in learning activities. Students exchange simple correspondence in writing to report on their daily routines at home and at school. They locate and convey factual information from familiar types of spoken and visual sources and they locate factual information in written texts to inform others using learnt words, phrases and characters. Students create and present their own representations of familiar songs, poems or stories. They also create short imaginative texts such as storyboards or cartoons using modelled language.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, understanding the components of Pinyin. They recognise high frequency Chinese characters related to their personal world and they use context-related vocabulary and simple sentences to generate language for a range of purposes. Students begin to develop a metalanguage for Chinese to talk about language, using terms similar to those used in English.

Students are supported to identify vocabulary and expressions that reflect different cultural values, traditions or practices.

In Year 4 students continue to require extensive support with their language learning. The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. The role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing is such that students can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. Students practise using Chinese, participating in action-related talk and completing tasks while relying on teacher modelling, prompts and repetition. Students respond non-verbally to spoken Chinese in the classroom and their understanding of Chinese is dependent on context and on teacher intonation, gestures and facial expressions. Students continue to be encouraged to use Chinese as much as possible for social interactions and in learning tasks.

Communicating

Socialising

Interact and socialise orally with the teacher and peers, using correct tones, modelled questions and responses to exchange information about aspects of their personal worlds, including their daily routines at home and school, for example, 我八点上学;
星期日我打网球

Contribute to class activities by asking for and giving permission, apologising and excusing, for example, 我可以…吗?; 可以; 对不起; raising hand and using phrases such as 老师,我不懂 to request assistance in learning activities
(ACLCHC017)

Exchange simple correspondence in writing with teachers and peers, using formulaic expressions and language to report on their daily routines at home and at school, for example, 你几点睡觉?
(ACLCHC018)

Informing

Locate and convey factual information from familiar types of spoken and visual sources related to personal and social worlds
(ACLCHC019)

Locate factual information, key words or familiar characters in texts related to their personal and social worlds and use this information to inform others using learnt words, phrases and characters
(ACLCHC020)

Creating

Create and present their own representations of familiar songs, poems or stories such as《小星星》,《找朋友》or《恭喜恭喜》, poems and stories《春晓》, for different audiences, using voice, rhythm and appropriate gesture and action
(ACLCHC021)

Create short written imaginative texts such as storyboards and cartoons, using simple characters and short sentences that follow the basic subject‑verb‑object structure
(ACLCHC022)

Translating

Translate the meanings of important everyday words using contextual cues

Use visual, print or online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate simple familiar texts such as labels or captions
(ACLCHC023)

Reflecting

Describe how aspects of their own identity are reflected in their various group and community memberships
(ACLCHC025)

Understanding

Systems of language

Understand the components of Pinyin such as the different combinations of consonant and vowel/vowels

Recognise and reproduce familiar or simple Pinyin but not always with correct tone marks
(ACLCHU026)

Explore Chinese characters from familiar contexts using stroke types and sequences, component forms and their arrangement
(ACLCHU027)

Recognise and use context-related vocabulary in simple spoken and written texts to generate language for a range of purposes

Recognise and use grammatical features and simple sentences to record observations, including:

  • understanding that Chinese sentences have a particular word order
  • exploring basic sentence structure in Chinese, consisting of subject-verb-object and comparing similar sentences constructed in English and Chinese, for example, ‘What’s the subject in the sentence My mum drives a car?’ and 我妈妈开车。
  • recognising and using some familiar verbs for daily routine such as 醒来/叫醒、去睡觉、吃、去上学、玩、学习、听音乐、
    读书/看书、看电视

(ACLCHU012)

Begin to develop a metalanguage for Chinese to talk about language, using terms similar to those used in English
(ACLCHU028)

Recognise the particular language features and textual conventions in simple spoken, written and multimodal Chinese texts
(ACLCHU029)

Language variation and change

Understand and demonstrate how language use varies according to the participants’ age, gender, relationship and social position and the context of use
(ACLCHU031)

Role of language and culture

Recognise that Chinese contains influences from other languages and understand the diversity of languages and cultures represented in the classroom
(ACLCHU030)

Achievement standard

At standard, students interact and socialise in Chinese with their teacher and each other through class experiences, activities and transactions to exchange information about aspects of their personal worlds, their daily routines at home and school, such as 星期日我打网球. They use with guidance, familiar modelled questions and responses, to provide information, ask for/give permission and request assistance, such as 老师,我不懂. They write simple correspondence using formulaic language, Chinese characters and Pinyin with some guidance. Students identify and convey some factual information from spoken and visual texts related to their personal and social worlds. They locate some key words, familiar characters and factual information in written texts and convey information with guidance, using learnt words, phrases and characters. Students create and present their own representations of familiar imaginative texts. They create short written imaginative texts using simple characters and modelled, short sentences with guidance. Students translate some familiar, high-frequency words and use dictionaries and word lists, with guidance, to translate simple familiar texts. Students identify ways in which identity is reflected through cultural practices and norms.

Students become familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, identifying some of the components and the consonant and vowel/vowels combination of familiar Pinyin, and writing Pinyin with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They identify the components and structures of some familiar Chinese characters. Students recognise and use, both orally and in writing, a range of vocabulary. They recognise and use elements of grammar in simple sentences to record observations, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students understand that Chinese sentences have a particular word order. They explore basic sentence structure in Chinese, consisting of subject-verb-object and compare similar sentences constructed in English and Chinese. Students recognise and use some familiar verbs for daily routine, such as 读书/看书、看电视. They talk about how the Chinese language works using some Chinese terms, with guidance, and identify some language features and textual conventions in familiar Chinese texts. Students list ways that language use varies according to context and participants’ age, gender and relationship, and usually act accordingly. They identify some Chinese vocabulary that reflect influences from other languages, and the languages and cultures represented in the classroom.



Year 5 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 5 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 4 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture.

Students communicate in Chinese, participating in oral interactions with the teacher and peers, to exchange information about their home and places in their local community. They exchange written correspondence exchanging personal information and aspects of personal experience. Students gather and compare information from a range of spoken and written texts. They also convey key points of information from these texts orally and in written form using scaffolded language. Students describe characters from a range of short imaginative texts and create their own spoken and written imaginative texts using modelled language.

Students are becoming more familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, identifying features of Chinese characters, including stroke types and sequences and component forms and their arrangements. They use context-related vocabulary and grammatical features to generate language for a range of purposes. Students continue to build a metalanguage for Chinese to describe patterns, grammatical rules and variations in language structures.

Students compare ways of communicating in Australian and Chinese-speaking contexts and identify ways in which culture influences language use.

In Year 5 students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Chinese. They are supported to use Chinese as much as possible for classroom routines and interactions, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is predominantly used for discussion, clarification, explanation, analysis and reflection.

Communicating

Socialising

Participate in oral interactions with the teacher and peers, experimenting with simple modelled descriptive and expressive language to exchange information about their home and places in their local community, for example, 我的房间很大;
我喜欢看书;我的花园很漂亮;我星期六去图书馆

Seek permission from the teacher or peers to participate in activities or to be excused, for example, 我可以去厕所吗?;我可以去喝水吗?
(ACLCHC033)

Collaborate with peers in guided written tasks to present personal information and relate experiences about their home and places in their local community, through photo-stories, emails and text messages for new classmates or for a class blog, for example,
我的卧室很小。卧室里有一张白色的书桌,一把黑色的椅子和一张蓝色的床。
(ACLCHC034)

Informing

Gather and compare information and supporting details from a range of spoken and visual texts related to their personal and social worlds
(ACLCHC035)

Locate and convey key points in written informative texts related to their personal and social worlds, summarising the points to report to known audiences using learnt words, phrases and characters
(ACLCHC036)

Creating

Share responses to characters in short imaginative texts such as popular songs, stories, television programs or music videos and create simple spoken imaginative texts
(ACLCHC037)

Create written imaginative texts, sequencing events, using scaffolded models of texts, learnt characters or word lists for support
(ACLCHC038)

Translating

Translate from Chinese to English and vice versa, simple texts used for everyday purposes, noticing which words and phrases do not readily translate and require interpretation or explanation

Use visual, print or online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate short familiar texts
(ACLCHC039)

Reflecting

Compare ways of communicating in Australian and Chinese-speaking contexts and identify ways in which culture influences language use
(ACLCHC041)

Understanding

Systems of language

Recognise and discriminate between homonyms in Chinese, for example, shì- 是 and 室, relying on contextual cues to assist understanding

Recognise that some Pinyin with different tones change the meaning of the word shì 是 and shí十

Understand that the meaning of spoken language can be changed by using different tones
(ACLCHU042)

Recognise the features of the Chinese writing system, identifying how character structure, position and component sequences relate the form of a character to its particular sound and meaning
(ACLCHU043)

Use context-related vocabulary in simple spoken and written texts to generate language for a range of purposes

Recognise and use grammatical features to form simple sentences, including:

  • nouns 卫生间、公园
  • adjectives 好、坏、大、小
  • numbers
  • using the joining word 和
  • using measurement words 一间卧室;两把椅子
  • recognising that in Chinese, verbs convey tense without conjugation, for example, explaining why 有 can mean ‘have’, ‘had’ and ‘will have’
  • applying processes of discourse development, including 也 and 和

Continue to build a metalanguage for Chinese to describe patterns, grammatical rules and variations in language structures
(ACLCHU028)

Describe the major features of familiar text types in Chinese, including lack of word spacing or use of punctuation and variability in text direction
(ACLCHU045)

Language variation and change

Examine how language is used to clarify roles and relationships between participants in interactions
(ACLCHU047)

Role of language and culture

Understand that Chinese is characterised by diversity in spoken and written forms
(ACLCHU046)

Achievement standard

At standard, students participate in interactions in Chinese with their teacher and each other through guided tasks, class experiences, activities and transactions, to exchange information about their home and places in their community. They use simple modelled, descriptive and expressive language, with some guidance, to participate in activities, or to provide information, such as 我星期六去图书馆, through photo-stories, emails and text messages for new classmates or for a class blog. Students gather and compare most information and some supporting details from spoken and visual texts related to their personal and social worlds. They locate, summarise and convey most key points in written informative texts, using learnt words, phrases and characters, with some guidance. They share simple responses to characters in imaginative texts and create simple written imaginative texts, showing sequencing of events and using scaffolded models of texts, with guidance. Students translate, with some guidance, simple texts from Chinese to English and vice versa, showing some awareness that there are words or expressions that cannot be directly translated between languages. They use dictionaries, with some guidance, and word lists to translate short familiar texts. Students identify some ways in which culture influences language use and compare with guidance, ways of communicating in Australian and Chinese-speaking contexts.

Students are becoming more familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, identifying and discriminating between most familiar homonyms, with some guidance. They identify, and sometimes apply when speaking, some familiar Pinyin/language that changes meaning depending on the tone mark. Students identify some of the features of the Chinese writing system and how the form of a character relates to its sound and meaning. They recognise and use vocabulary and elements of grammar with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students form simple sentences using nouns, adjectives, numbers, the joining word 和, and measurement words. They recognise that in Chinese, verbs convey tense without conjugation, such as explaining why 有 can mean ‘have’, ‘had’ and ‘will have,’ and apply processes of discourse development, including 也 and 和. Students talk about how the Chinese language works using some Chinese terms, with guidance, and explore some features of familiar text types in Chinese. They describe how language is used to clarify roles and relationships between participants, and identify some ways in which Chinese is different in spoken and written forms.



Year 6 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 6 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 5 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture. Students gain greater independence and become more conscious of their peers and social context. As they gain a greater awareness of the world around them they also become more aware of the similarities and differences between the Chinese language and culture and their own.

Students communicate in Chinese, participating in oral interactions with others to exchange information and relate experiences about planning and organising social activities and events. They participate in guided written tasks to plan events or activities, organise displays or develop projects for a shared event. Students gather, classify, compare and respond to information and supporting details from a range of texts related to personal and social worlds. They share and compare responses to characters, events and ideas in a variety of imaginative texts and create simple spoken imaginative texts. Students create or reinterpret, for different audiences, written imaginative texts, describing characters and plotting a storyline.

Students are becoming more familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, using Pinyin to record the sound of phrases or sentences with greater accuracy. They use context-related vocabulary in simple spoken and written texts to generate language for a range of purposes. They recognise and use grammatical features to form sentences to express details. Students continue to build a metalanguage for Chinese to describe patterns, grammatical rules and variations in language structures.

Students understand that the Chinese is characterised by diversity in spoken and written forms. They also explore values and beliefs across cultures and identify how cultural values are expressed through language.

In Year 6 students continue to widen their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Chinese. They are encouraged to use Chinese as much as possible for interactions, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice.

Communicating

Socialising

Participate in oral interactions with others, using simple modelled descriptive and expressive language, to exchange information and relate experiences about planning and organising future social activities and events, for example, a birthday party, a shopping trip or a visit from a sister school

Respond to the teacher’s questions with actions or answers, for example, answering the question
做完了吗?
(ACLCHC033)

Participate in guided written tasks to plan future events or activities, organise displays, develop projects or budget for a shared event, through emails, descriptions of a place, invitations, publicity fliers, or photo-stories
(ACLCHC034)

Informing

Gather, classify, compare and respond to information and supporting details from a range of spoken and visual texts related to their personal and social worlds
(ACLCHC035)

Locate and convey key information in a range of written and digital informative texts, related to personal and social worlds using learnt words, phrases and characters
(ACLCHC036)

Creating

Share and compare responses and express personal opinions to characters, events and ideas in a variety of short imaginative texts, identify cultural elements and create simple spoken imaginative texts
(ACLCHC037)

Create or reinterpret for different audiences, written imaginative texts, describing characters, plotting a storyline, using images for effect and sequencing events
(ACLCHC038)

Translating

Translate and interpret simple texts, identifying actions, words and phrases that do not readily translate into English and expand descriptions or give examples where necessary to assist meaning

Experiment with bilingual dictionaries and/or online translators, considering the relative advantages or limitations of each resource
(ACLCHC039)

Reflecting

Engage in intercultural experiences, describing aspects of language and culture that are unfamiliar and discussing their own reactions and adjustments
(ACLCHC041)

Understanding

Systems of language

Use Pinyin to record the sound of phrases or sentences with greater accuracy
(ACLCHU042)

Apply knowledge of character to learn to read and write new characters and develop strategies for learning, for example, making connections between characters with a common component
(你、他、们)
(ACLCHU043)

Use context-related vocabulary in simple spoken and written texts to generate language for a range of purposes

Recognise and use grammatical features to form sentences to express details such as the time, place and manner of an action and to sequence ideas, including:

  • comparing the use of tenses in English and Chinese, for example, how future tense is often expressed through time phrases in Chinese, for example, 我明天去北京;下个星期去上海
  • identifying the use of adverbial phrases and extending understanding of sentence structure using subject–time–place–manner–verb–object, for example, 我星期一上学;我在澳大利亚上学;
    我走路上学
  • examining the clauses of a sentence in Chinese and noticing how they are linked coherently, for example, 他叫王晓明,是我的朋友 (i.e. no subject/pronoun)
  • applying processes of discourse development, including joining (也、和), contrasting (但是) and sequencing (就) information

Continue to build a metalanguage for Chinese to describe patterns, grammatical rules and variations in language structures
(ACLCHU044)

Notice how the features and conventions of text organisation vary according to audience, purpose and context, for example, digital, online or face to face
(ACLCHU045)

Language variation and change

Explore values and beliefs across cultures and identify how cultural values are expressed through language
(ACLCHU047)

Role of language and culture

Understand that Chinese is characterised by diversity in spoken and written forms
(ACLCHU046)

Achievement standard

At standard, students participate in oral interactions and guided writing tasks in Chinese through collaborative tasks, class experiences, activities and transactions, to exchange some information and recount some experiences about planning and organising future social events. They use simple modelled descriptive and expressive language with some guidance when collaborating with peers in guided tasks to organise displays, develop projects or budget for a shared event through emails, descriptions of a place, invitations, publicity fliers, or photo-stories. They gather, classify, compare and respond to most information and some supporting details from spoken and visual texts related to their personal and social worlds. They locate some key information in written texts and convey using learnt words, characters and phrases. Students identify, with some guidance, some cultural elements, share and compare responses, and express some opinions about characters, events and ideas in simple imaginative texts. They create or adapt, with some guidance, imaginative texts for different audiences, describing characters, plotting storylines and sequencing events. They identify some familiar words and phrases in simple texts that do not translate directly in English and interpret/translate them, with some guidance. Students experiment with and discuss the usefulness of various forms of dictionaries. They engage in intercultural experiences, describing simply, some aspects of language and culture that are unfamiliar, and discuss their own reactions and adjustments.

Students are becoming more familiar with the systems of the Chinese language, explaining and applying features of intonation, pronunciation and writing conventions used in different contexts and types of texts with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They use vocabulary and develop and apply knowledge of grammatical elements in simple spoken and written texts, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students recognise and use grammatical features to form sentences to express details, such as the time, place and manner of an action, and to sequence ideas. They compare the use of tenses in English and Chinese, such as how future tense is often expressed through time phrases in Chinese. They identify the use of adverbial phrases and extend understanding of sentence structure using subject-time-place-manner-verb-object, such as 我星期一上学 and 我在澳大利亚上学. Students examine the clauses of a sentence in Chinese and notice how they are linked coherently. They apply processes of discourse development, such as joining (也、和), contrasting (但是) and sequencing (就) information. They explore, with guidance, values and beliefs across cultures, and identify ways in which cultural values are expressed through language. Students identify some ways in which Chinese is different in spoken and written forms.



Year 7 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 7 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 6 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture. Some students begin Year 7 with proficiency in languages other than Chinese and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Chinese. Their growing textual knowledge, developed through English literacy, supports their developing Chinese literacy. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive.

Students communicate in Chinese, initiating and participating in spoken and written interactions with peers and known adults to talk about, give opinions, share thoughts and feelings on people, social events and school experiences. They engage in written interactions with peers and others to exchange information, plan activities or social events. Students access and summarise key information and supporting details from spoken texts and locate, classify and organise key points of information from written texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds. They respond to a range of imaginative texts, identifying how features of performance convey different emotions and attitudes and apply this knowledge to their own oral performances and texts. They create and perform simple individual and shared written imaginative texts that involve imagined characters and places to entertain peers and younger audiences.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, examining differences in sounds and tones in oral discourse and understanding of familiar radicals and phonetic sides when reading unfamiliar texts. They extend their knowledge of context-related vocabulary and identify features of grammar to organise and sequence ideas when encountered in familiar expressions and scaffolded language contexts. Students use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese.

In Year 7 students reflect on changes in their own use of language(s) over time, noticing how and when new ways are adopted or existing ways adapted. The practice of reviewing and consolidating prior learning is balanced against the provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and connections.

Communicating

Socialising

Initiate and participate in spoken interactions with peers and known adults, using modelled expressive and descriptive language to talk about, give opinions, share thoughts and feelings on people, social events and school experiences, for example,
我今年上七年级; 你是哪国人?;我喜欢上学;
你喜欢学习汉语吗?
(ACLCHC049)

Engage in written interactions with peers and other familiar participants to plan activities or social events, exchange information such as hosting a Chinese class or visitor, preparing for a real or virtual school event, trip or excursion

Share information about life in different cultural contexts, expressing ideas and opinions, for example, 中国人喜欢吃米饭,
澳大利亚人喜欢吃面包,你呢?
(ACLCHC050)

Informing

Access and summarise key information and supporting details from spoken texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds
(ACLCHC051)

Locate, classify and organise key points of information from written texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds and re-present this information for known audiences
(ACLCHC052)

Creating

Respond to a range of performance-based imaginative texts, identifying how features of performance, including the use of posture, movement, voice, images and sound, are used to convey different emotions and attitudes and apply this knowledge to their own oral performances and texts
(ACLCHC053)

Create and perform simple, individual and shared written imaginative texts that involve imagined characters and places, to describe experiences and to entertain peers and younger audiences
(ACLCHC054)

Translating

Translate short phrases and texts for different audiences varying the language to explain key points for these different audiences
(ACLCHC055)

Reflecting

Interact and engage with members of the Chinese-speaking community to share and compare aspects of culture that affect communication and notice how their own culture impacts on language use, for example, ways of expressing feelings or politeness protocols associated with social events

Consider their own biography, including personal experiences, family origins, traditions and beliefs, interests and experience, impacts on identity and communication
(ACLCHC057)

Understanding

Systems of language

Examine differences in sounds and tones heard in oral discourse, including the range of vowel and consonant combinations, for example, ‘qin’ versus ‘qing’ and ‘chi’ versus ‘ci
(ACLCHU058)

Interpret texts by estimating the probable sound and meaning of characters based on understanding of familiar radicals and phonetic sides when reading unfamiliar texts, for example, 鸡、鸭、 鹅、 莺、但、担、旦、胆

Use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese
(ACLCHU059)

Extend knowledge of context-related vocabulary and identify features of grammar to organise and sequence ideas in simple spoken and written texts, including:

  • how clauses of a sentence are linked coherently, joining, contrasting and sequencing ideas and information
  • using alternative language to clarify intended meaning, for example, saying 我不胖不瘦 when they don’t know the phrase 中等身材
  • comparing ways in which tense is expressed in Chinese and applying, for example, 了 to indicate completion; 完 to indicate the achievement of a desired result; 想 to indicate intention; verb negation 没有 to indicate incomplete past and 正在 to indicate action in progress
  • using different ways to negate ideas depending on degree of formality or emphasis, for example,
    我不是…;我不能…;不行;…别
  • (ACLCHU044) (ACLCHU060)

Identify the structures and key features of familiar texts in Chinese such as language choice, focus of information and paragraphing, to explain the relationship between the language and structure used and the purpose of the text
(ACLCHU061)

Language variation and change

Explore the ways in which Chinese language use is fostered among local communities and the use of Chinese in local media
(ACLCHU062)

Explain the dynamic nature of the Chinese language by exploring examples of types of simplifications and ways of associating traditional characters with known simplified forms, for example, whole simplifications   (为-為), part substitutions (汉-漢) and half simplifications (说-說)
(ACLCHU078)

Understand that Chinese, like other languages, has evolved and developed through different periods of influence and change
(ACLCHU063)

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how language use varies between communities and how communication is shaped by a community’s geographical location, languages and cultures
(ACLCHU064)

Achievement standard

At standard, students initiate and participate in spoken and written interactions in Chinese with others through collaborative tasks, activities and transactions to exchange information on people, social events and school experiences. They use modelled descriptive and expressive language to talk about, give opinions and share thoughts and feelings, such as 我今年上七年级 and 你喜欢学习汉语吗? Students engage in written interactions to plan Chinese activities or social events, as well as share and exchange information about life in different cultural contexts, expressing some ideas and opinions. Students identify and summarise most key information, and some supporting details, from spoken texts related to their personal and social worlds. They locate, classify and organise most key points of information from written texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds and re-present this information for known audiences. Students respond to a range of performance-based imaginative texts, identifying how features of performance are used to convey different emotions and attitudes and apply this knowledge to their own oral performances and texts. They create and perform simple, individual and shared imaginative texts with imagined characters and places, to describe experiences and to entertain peers and younger audiences. They translate, mostly accurately, short phrases and texts for different audiences, at times varying the language to explain key points for these different audiences. Students interact and engage with Chinese speakers to share and compare some aspects of culture that affect communication, and notice how their own culture impacts on language use. They also consider how their biography influences their identity and communication.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, examining differences in sounds and tones heard in oral discourse, including the range of vowel and consonant combinations. They interpret texts by estimating the probable sound and meaning of characters based on understanding of familiar radicals and phonetic sides when reading unfamiliar texts. They discuss how the Chinese language works, using metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese. Students use some knowledge of character components and how they can be used to categorise vocabulary. Students use familiar vocabulary and apply elements of grammar, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They show how clauses of a sentence are linked coherently, joining, contrasting and sequencing ideas and information. They use alternative language to clarify intended meaning, for example, saying 我不胖不瘦 when they don’t know the phrase 中等身材, and compare ways in which tense is expressed in Chinese and applying, for example, 了 to indicate completion; 完 to indicate the achievement of a desired result; 想 to indicate intention; verb negation 没有 to indicate incomplete past and 正在 to indicate action in progress. Students use different ways to negate ideas depending on degree of formality or emphasis. Students identify the structures and key features of familiar texts in Chinese to explain the relationship between the language and structure used and the purpose of the text. They explore the ways in which Chinese language use is fostered among local communities and the use of Chinese in local media. Students discuss the dynamic nature of the Chinese language by exploring examples of types of simplifications and ways of associating traditional characters with known simplified forms. They reflect on how Chinese, like other languages, has evolved and developed through different periods of influence and change. Students reflect on how language use varies between communities and how communication is shaped by a community’s geographical location, languages and cultures.



Year 8 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 8 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 7 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on the sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Students communicate in Chinese, initiating and maintaining spoken and written interactions with peers and known adults to share ideas, views and experiences of family and community activities, social events, special occasions and milestones. They engage in written interactions and activities with peers and others that involve planning, considering options and solving problems. Students access, summarise and share key information from a range of texts and present them in different formats for the intended audience. They organise and present information in texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds, using descriptive and expressive language. Students respond to aspects of performance-based imaginative texts and express opinions about these aspects in their own oral performances and texts. They create and perform written imaginative texts to describe experiences to enrich the visual or listening experience.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, examining differences in sounds and tones heard in oral discourse and interpret texts by inferring meaning. They extend knowledge of context-related vocabulary and identify and apply features of grammar to organise, sequence and connect ideas in spoken and written texts. Students use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese

Students are encouraged to participate in intercultural interactions with members of the Chinese-speaking community to discuss cultural practices, demonstrating awareness of the importance of shared understanding and reflecting on adjustments made as a result of reactions and responses.

In Year 8 students are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, to self-monitor and peer-monitor and to adjust language in response to their experiences in different contexts. Chinese language is being used in more extended and elaborated ways for classroom interactions and routines, task participation and structured discussion.

Communicating

Socialising

Initiate and maintain spoken interactions with peers and known adults, using modelled expressive and descriptive language to share ideas, views and experiences of family and community activities, social events, special occasions and milestones, for example, 中国人春节喜欢穿红色的衣服和吃饺子; 澳大利亚人圣诞节喜欢…
(ACLCHC049)

Engage in written interactions and activities with peers and other familiar participants that involve planning, sharing ideas and views considering options, inviting, negotiation of arrangements and solving problems

Compare opinions on and attitudes towards different cultures such as 我喜欢上学,因为…;
我最喜欢数学
(ACLCHC050)

Informing

Access, summarise and share key ideas and information and opinions from a range of spoken texts related to their personal and social worlds and present them in different formats for the intended audience
(ACLCHC051)

Organise and present information from a range of written texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds, using descriptive and expressive language to compare perspectives and experiences
(ACLCHC052)

Creating

Respond to a range of performance-based imaginative texts, observing how characters, emotions and attitudes are portrayed and express opinions about these aspects in their own oral performances and texts
(ACLCHC053)

Create and perform a range of written imaginative texts to describe experiences that involve imagined contexts and characters such as raps, poems, picture books or cartoons, selecting appropriate language, rhythms and images to enrich the visual or listening experience
(ACLCHC054)

Translating

Translate and interpret texts and compare their own translation to peers’, reflecting on challenges associated with transferring meaning and concepts from one language to another
(ACLCHC055)

Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions with members of the Chinese-speaking community to discuss cultural practices, demonstrating awareness of the importance of shared understanding and reflect on adjustments made as a result of reactions and responses

Consider how their own biography impacts on identity and communication and shapes their own intercultural experiences
(ACLCHC057)

Understanding

Systems of language

Examine differences in sounds and tones heard in oral discourse such as the diverse meanings of words that share similar sounds, for example, the many meanings of the sound ‘shi’ and learning how to differentiate between 同音词 (homonyms) and 近音词 (near-syllable words) in different contexts, for example, 买东西/卖东西
(ACLCHU058)

Interpret texts by inferring meaning from common character components or position of components and analyse how reliable this method is in translating

Use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese
(ACLCHU059)

Extend knowledge of context-related vocabulary and identify and apply features of grammar to organise, sequence and connect ideas in spoken and written texts, including:

  • exploring the use of diverse time expressions and ways to sequence events in time and applying in their own language use, for example, 先…然后;一…就…;…了;就…;才;第一;
    然后
  • comparing and applying the functions of prepositions and discussing the importance of context when determining their meaning in texts, for example, 跟,对,给
  • exploring and applying the use of conjunctions to sequence and connect ideas when constructing texts, for example, 不但…而且…;虽然…但是…
  • using different ways to negate ideas depending on degree of formality or emphasis, for example,我不是…;我哪儿有…?;我没有办法…;
    我不能…;不行;…别;…不可以

(ACLCHU060)

Analyse how authors adjust features of different text types for different purposes and audiences
(ACLCHU061)

Language variation and change

Investigate the extent and dynamic nature of Chinese language use locally and globally
(ACLCHU062)

Explain how the Chinese language is constantly expanding to include new words and expressions in response to social and technological changes
(ACLCHU063)

Role of language and culture

Compare and reflect on how cultural contexts influence the way language is used within and across communities
(ACLCHU064)

Achievement standard

At standard, students initiate and maintain spoken interactions in Chinese with others through collaborative tasks, activities and transactions to exchange information on family and community activities, social events, special occasions and milestones. They use modelled descriptive and expressive language to share ideas, views and experiences, such as 中国人春节喜欢穿红色的衣服和吃饺子 and 澳大利亚人圣诞?They participate in written interactions and activities that involve planning, sharing ideas and views by considering options, making arrangements and solving problems, as well as comparing opinions on, and attitudes towards, different cultures. Students identify and share some key ideas, information and opinions from spoken texts related to their personal and social worlds, and present them in different formats for their intended audience. They list and present some information from written texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds, using mostly rehearsed descriptive and expressive language to compare perspectives and experiences. Students respond to a range of performance-based imaginative texts, observing how characters, emotions and attitudes are portrayed, and express opinions about these aspects in their own oral performances and texts. They create and perform a range of simple written texts to describe experiences with imagined contexts and characters, selecting mostly appropriate language, rhythms and images to enrich the visual or listening experience. Students translate and interpret texts, with some inaccuracies, and compare their own translation to peers’, reflecting on challenges associated with transferring meaning and concepts from one language to another. Students interact and engage with Chinese speakers to share and compare some aspects of culture that affect communication, and notice how their own culture impacts on language use. They also consider how their biography influences their identity and communication.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, examining differences in sounds and tones heard in oral discourse, such as the diverse meanings of words that share similar sounds. They interpret texts by inferring meaning from common character components or position of components and analyse how reliable this method is in translating. Students discuss how the Chinese language works, using metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese. They use familiar vocabulary and apply elements of grammar, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students explore the use of diverse time expressions and ways to sequence events in time and apply in their own language use, for example, 先…然后;一…就…; …了; 就…;才;第一;然后. Students compare and apply the functions of prepositions and discuss the importance of context when determining their meaning in texts. They explore and apply the use of conjunctions to sequence and connect ideas when constructing texts. They use different ways to negate ideas depending on degree of formality or emphasis, for example,
我不是…;我哪儿有…?;我没有办法…;我不能…;不行;…别;…不可以.Students analyse, in part, how authors adjust features of different text types for different purposes and audiences. They investigate the extent and dynamic nature of Chinese language use locally and globally, and explain how the Chinese language is constantly expanding to include new words and expressions in response to social and technological changes. Students compare and reflect on some ways in which cultural contexts influence the way language is used within and across communities.



Year 9 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 9 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 8 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture.

Students communicate in Chinese, initiating and participating in sustained interactions to share and compare personal opinions about aspects of childhood, teenage life and relationships. They engage in extended written interaction and activities about events or experiences. Students analyse ideas and information from a range of texts, identifying ways in which emotions, intentions and ideas are expressed. They collate and present in written form different perspectives related to aspects of their personal and social worlds and identify context, purpose and intended audience. Students engage with imaginative performance-based texts, sharing opinions on characters and plot, comparing themes and content with English language texts and utilise these to create and perform their own imaginative texts. They create written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences.

Students understand the systems of the Chinese language, exploring the role of emphasis, stress and rhythm to express subtle meanings in interactions. They increase control of context-related vocabulary and extend knowledge of grammatical elements. Students use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese.

Students increasingly monitor language choices when using Chinese, comparing and reflecting on how cultural contexts influence the way language is used within and across communities.

In Year 9 learning is characterised by consolidation and progression. Students are provided with new challenges and engage in some independent learning experiences, always supported by modelling, scaffolding and monitoring.

Communicating

Socialising

Initiate and participate in spoken interactions, using informative and descriptive language to share and compare personal opinions about aspects of childhood, teenage life and relationships, for example, 中国学生的作业比澳大利亚学生的多;
他们喜欢在周末看电影;澳大利亚学生喜欢在周末运动;我喜欢上网交朋友,你呢?
(ACLCHC065)

Engage in extended written interaction and activities about events or experiences such as aspects of childhood, teenage life and relationships, referring to information stated, or requesting or providing further details
(ACLCHC066)

Informing

Analyse ideas and information from a range of spoken texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds, identifying the different ways in which emotions, intentions and ideas are expressed
(ACLCHC067)

Collate and present in written form different perspectives related to aspects of their personal and social worlds and identify context, purpose and intended audience
(ACLCHC068)

Creating

Engage with imaginative performance-based texts such as popular television programs, Chinese songs and plays, sharing opinions on characters and plot, comparing themes and content with English language texts created for similar audiences and utilise this to create and perform their own texts
(ACLCHC069)

Create written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences
(ACLCHC070)

Translating

Translate and/or interpret a range of texts and discuss how to convey concepts that do not translate easily across different linguistic and cultural contexts
(ACLCHC071)

Reflecting

Monitor language choices when using Chinese, considering their own and others’ responses and reactions in intercultural communication, questioning assumptions and values and taking responsibility for modifying language and behaviours in relation to different cultural perspectives

Investigate and share their own family and cultural traditions and experiences, considering how these have shaped and continue to shape personal and cultural identity
(ACLCHC073)

Understanding

Systems of language

Explore the role of emphasis, stress and rhythm to express subtle meanings in interactions
(ACLCHU074)

Use knowledge of character form and function to infer information about the sound and meaning of unfamiliar characters

Use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese
(ACLCHU075)

Increase control of context-related vocabulary and extend grammatical knowledge, including:

  • comparing the use of words that rely on interpretation of context to convey the intended meaning such as 让、给, comparing extracts from a range of spoken and written texts which use the same word in a different way
  • expressing conditions, for example, 如果…就 ; expressing cause and effect, for example, 为了…and expressing the condition, quality or result of an action, for example, 坐得下、说得对、
    做完、买到
  • examining the use of noun phrases in Chinese and experimenting with omitting nouns (zero subjects) when communicating, for example,
    吃饭了吗?
  • experimenting with the use of 成语 (Chinese set expressions) and famous sayings to substantiate ideas in Chinese
  • experimenting with 的 as a subject modifier to express ideas that would contain relative clauses in English, for example, 我妈妈做的饭很好吃
  • (ACLCHU076)

Identify the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary Chinese texts
(ACLCHU077)

Language variation and change

Explore how the Chinese language continues to adapt over time and is influenced by local and global contexts and cultures such as the use of acronyms and English words and how Chinese authorities are trying to limit the use of these terms in the media
(ACLCHU078)

Explain the influence of language on people’s actions, values and beliefs and seek to appreciate the scale and importance of linguistic diversity in groups and cultures
(ACLCHU079)

Role of language and culture

Explore how language choices reflect cultural practices and values, for example differences in the use and frequency of ‘thank you’ and 谢谢, that can be difficult for speakers of other languages to interpret
(ACLCHU080)

Achievement standard

At standard, students initiate, in part, and participate in spoken interactions in Chinese with others through collaborative tasks, activities and transactions to exchange information on aspects of childhood, teenage life and relationships. They use familiar descriptive and expressive language to share and compare personal opinions, such as 中国学生的作业比澳大利亚学生的多 and 我喜欢上网交朋友,你呢? They engage in written interactions and activities, in simple characters, Pinyin and some English, about aspects of childhood, teenage life and relationships, referring to information stated, or requesting or providing further details. Students analyse key ideas and information from a range of spoken texts related to aspects of their personal and social worlds, and identify the different ways in which emotions, intentions and ideas are expressed. They collate and present, in written form, some different perspectives related to aspects of their personal and social worlds and identify context, purpose and intended audience. Students engage with imaginative performance-based texts, sharing opinions on characters and plot, comparing themes and content with English language texts created for similar audiences, and utilise these to create and perform their own texts. They create simple imaginative written texts that describe aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences. Students translate and interpret, with some accuracy, a range of texts, and discuss how to convey concepts that do not translate easily across different linguistic and cultural contexts. They monitor their language choices when using Chinese, and consider their own and others’ responses and reactions in intercultural communication. Students question some assumptions and values and, occasionally, modify their language and behaviours in relation to different cultural perspectives. They also investigate and share family and cultural traditions and experiences, considering how these have shaped, and continue to shape, personal and cultural identity.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, exploring the role of emphasis, stress and rhythm to express subtle meaning in interactions. They apply basic knowledge of character form and function to infer information about the sound and meaning of unfamiliar characters. Students discuss how the Chinese language works, using metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese. They use familiar vocabulary and apply elements of grammar, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Students compare the use of words that rely on interpretation of context to convey the intended meaning, such as 让、给, comparing extracts from a range of spoken and written texts which use the same word in a different way. They express conditions, for example, 如果…就; expressing cause and effect, for example, 为了… and expressing the condition, quality or result of an action, for example, 坐得下、说得对、做完、买到. Students experiment with the use of 成语 (Chinese set expressions) and famous sayings to substantiate ideas in Chinese. Students experiment with 的 as a subject modifier to express ideas that would contain relative clauses in English. They explain the purpose, structures and some language features of contemporary texts in Chinese. Students explore how the Chinese language continues to adapt over time and is influenced by local and global contexts and cultures. They explain, with some examples, the influence of language on people’s actions, values and beliefs, and seek to appreciate the scale and importance of linguistic diversity in groups and cultures. Students explore how language choices reflect cultural practices and values that can be difficult for speakers of other languages to interpret.



Year 10 Syllabus

Year Level Description

Year 10 Chinese: Second Language builds on the skills, knowledge and understanding required of students to communicate in the Chinese language developed in Year 9 and focuses on extending their oral and written communication skills and their understandings of Chinese language and culture. Students require continued guidance and mentoring at this stage of their language learning, but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how the Chinese language may feature in these.

Students communicate in Chinese, initiating and participating in sustained spoken interactions, using descriptive and expressive language in formal and informal exchanges to discuss young people’s experiences and interest in contemporary culture and social issues. They engage in sustained written interaction and activities, exchanging information, solving problems and managing diverse views. Students analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information and they collate and present in written form a range of perspectives on texts related to aspects of their personal, natural and social worlds. Students engage with and respond to a range of imaginative performance-based texts. They create written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences.

Students understand the systems of the Chinese language, explaining differences in intonation, rhythm and sounds when listening to speakers of different ages, genders and social positions. They increase control of context-related vocabulary and analyse how grammatical elements such as exploring the ways in which language can be manipulated to make ideas more objective, impact on the making of meaning in texts. Students use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese.

Students understand that Chinese language and culture have evolved and continue to change and understand that language use has the power to influence social relationships, beliefs and values.

In Year 10 students are challenged with more independent learning experiences, however, these experiences continue to be supported with scaffolding and monitoring.

Communicating

Socialising

Initiate and participate in sustained spoken interactions, using descriptive and expressive language in formal and informal exchanges to discuss young people’s experiences and interest in contemporary culture and social issues, for example,
为什么学中文很重要?;我不太同意你的说法,
因为…你觉得呢?;虽然你说得对,但是…所以我觉得…
(ACLCHC065)

Engage in sustained written interaction and activities about contemporary culture and social issues, for example, the importance of China to Australia’s economy, ways to promote a better understanding of China in Australian schools, protecting the environment or utilising technology, exchanging information, requesting clarification or confirmation, solving problems and managing diverse views such as 澳洲人对中国的印象是…
(ACLCHC066)

Informing

Analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information from a range of perspectives in spoken texts related to contemporary culture and social issues, identifying how context and culture affect how information is presented
(ACLCHC067)

Collate and present in written form a range of perspectives on texts related to aspects of their personal, natural and social worlds and identify how context and culture affect how information is presented
(ACLCHC068)

Creating

Engage with a range of imaginative performance-based texts and respond by discussing attitudes portrayed, expressing opinions, explaining themes, discussing characters and considering language use and cultural meanings and apply this to create and perform their own spoken imaginative texts
(ACLCHC069)

Create written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences and identify how some concepts can be readily translated between Chinese and English and some cannot
(ACLCHC070)

Translating

Consider the nature of translating and interpreting, explaining how cultural perspectives and concepts have been represented when transferring meaning from one language to another
(ACLCHC071)

Reflecting

Reflect on the experience of learning and using Chinese, considering how intercultural communication involves taking responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding by modifying language and behaviours in relation to cultural perspectives

Explore and express their own cultural identity and ability to act as a cultural mediator between Chinese speakers and Australians
(ACLCHC073)

Understanding

Systems of language

Explain differences in intonation, rhythm and sounds when listening to speakers of different ages, genders and social positions
(ACLCHU074)

Examine and explain the relationships between characters and word meanings when encountering new vocabulary

Use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese
(ACLCHU075)

Increase control of context-related vocabulary and analyse how grammatical elements impact on the making of meaning in texts, including:

  • justifying opinions and building logical arguments by expressing additional information and providing reasons, for example, using 不但……而且…… ; 除了……以外 ; 另外, and introducing contrasting views to others using elements such as cohesive devices, for example, 不是……而是……;不过,虽然……但是……
  • exploring the ways in which language can be manipulated to make ideas more objective, for example, removal of personal pronouns and opinions
  • experimenting with the use of 成语 (Chinese set expressions) and famous sayings to substantiate ideas in Chinese
  • experimenting with 的 as a subject modifier to express ideas that would contain relative clauses in English, for example, 我昨天买的书不太贵(ACLCHU076)

Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary Chinese texts
(ACLCHU077)

Language variation and change

Explain how Chinese language and culture have evolved and continue to change and understand that language use has the power to influence social relationships, beliefs and values
(ACLCHU078)

Explain how language defines people’s roles as outsiders or insiders in groups and cultures, for example, 老外、华侨、华裔、大陆人、华人、
中国人、少数民族
(ACLCHU079)

Role of language and culture

Analyse the ways in which language choices reflect cultural practices and values and how language is used to express familiarity and distance between participants in interactions, for example,
你能不能帮我一点忙?对不起,我没有空;
您找谁?你爸爸在家吗?
(ACLCHU080)

Achievement standard

At standard, students initiate and participate in sustained spoken and written interactions in Chinese with others through collaborative tasks, activities and transactions to provide information on young people’s experiences and interest in contemporary culture and social issues, such as
我不太同意你的说法 and 但是…所以我觉得…. They use familiar descriptive and expressive language, in formal and some informal exchanges, toexchange information, request clarification or confirmation, solve problems and manage diverse views. Students analyse, synthesise and evaluate some ideas and information from a range of perspectives in spoken texts related to aspects of their personal, natural and social worlds, and identify most of the ways that context and culture affect how information is presented. They collate and present in written form a range of perspectives on texts related to aspects of their personal, natural and social worlds, and identify most of the ways that context and culture affect how information is presented. Students engage with imaginative performance-based texts and respond by discussing attitudes portrayed, expressing opinions, explaining themes, discussing characters and considering language use and cultural meanings, and apply these to create and perform their own spoken imaginative texts. They create simple written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences, and identify how some concepts can be readily translated between Chinese and English and some cannot. When translating and interpreting from one language to another, students describe how cultural perspectives and concepts have been represented. They describe the experience of learning and using Chinese, considering how intercultural communication involves taking responsibility by modifying language and behaviours. They also explore and express their own cultural identity and ability to act as a cultural mediator between Chinese speakers and Australians.

Students better understand the systems of the Chinese language, explaining, in part, differences in intonation, rhythm and sounds when listening to speakers of different ages, genders and social positions. They examine and explain, in part, the relationships between characters and word meanings when encountering new vocabulary. Students use metalanguage to describe the distinctive spoken and written language system of Chinese. In spoken and written texts, students use familiar vocabulary, with a satisfactory level of accuracy. They analyse how elements of grammar impact on the making of meaning in texts, including justifying opinions and building logical arguments by expressing additional information and providing reasons, for example, using 不但…而且…; 除了…以外; 另外, and introducing contrasting views to others using elements, such as cohesive devices, for example, 不是…而是…;不过,虽然…但是…. Students explore the ways in which language can be manipulated to make ideas more objective, for example, the removal of personal pronouns and opinions. They experiment with the use of 成语 (Chinese set expressions) and famous sayings to substantiate ideas in Chinese. Students experiment with 的 as a subject modifier to express ideas that would contain relative clauses in English, for example, 我昨天买的书不太贵. They compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary Chinese texts. Students explain how Chinese language and culture have evolved and continue to change over time, and identify how language use has the power to influence social relationships, beliefs and values. They explain how language defines people’s roles as outsiders or insiders in groups and cultures. Students analyse the ways in which language choices reflect cultural practices and values, and describe how language is used to express familiarity and distance between participants in interactions.



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