Glossary

acceleration

Increasing velocity of an object or a person.

advocate (verb)

To argue in support of a cause or position. To speak out and act on your own behalf or that of another to ensure that your or others’ interests are taken into account.

analyse

To break down a topic into its parts and explain how the parts relate to each other and to the topic as a whole. Interpret data to reach stated conclusions.

angular motion

Rotating the body in the same direction and at the same time around a fixed point.

apply

To use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in a new situation.

assertiveness (assertive behaviour)

Communicating an individual’s needs or wishes in a confident and direct manner, whilst maintaining a level of respect for all involved.

attitude

The way in which an individual thinks or feels about another individual, object or situation. Often reflected in an individual’s behaviour.

belief

Acceptance that something is true even if there is no proof.

body awareness

An individual's perception of their body. This includes awareness of shapes made; space taken up; movements the body can accomplish; and each body part in isolation.

body management skills

Skills used to control the body in a variety of situations. These skills require an integration of agility, coordination, balance, and flexibility. They include rolling, stopping, bending, twisting, landing, stretching, climbing, static and dynamic balancing and turning.

built settings

Areas and spaces that are primarily constructed by humans, e.g. within buildings.

bystander behaviour

Conduct displayed by individuals who are present but not directly involved in an incident or event.

change (noun)

External conditions or situations that become different, e.g. stages in a young person’s life, including puberty and adolescence; moving from primary school to secondary school on a different site; moving between different cultures defined by different behavioural expectations.

community health

A field of public health that focuses on work within defined communities to maintain and improve the health and wellbeing of all people in that community through collective action.

compare

To give an account of similarities and differences between two or more items, referring to both (or all) throughout. Comparisons generally ask for similarities more than differences, but in some cases, also mention differences. These are often displayed in a table..

complementary health practices

Products, practices and philosophies that are not part of traditional, standard care. Also referred to as alternative therapy, alternative medicine and holistic therapy. Examples include acupuncture, herbal medicine, and biofeedback.

complexity

An indication of how complicated a process or action may be, especially when this involves many parts or sections.

consistency

Performance of skills that reflects a steady, uniform and reliable standard.

contextual factors

A range of determinants that can influence health, safety, wellbeing and physical activity participation. These include, but are not limited to, personal, social, cultural, economic and political factors that exist in differing ways and have varying impacts across population groups.

contingency plans

A set of actions designed to deal with, or respond to, changing situations or emergencies.

control

Performance of skill that reflects the ability to manipulate movements or objects in order to achieve a desired outcome.

cooperation skills

Skills that an individual can use in order to work with others to produce an outcome.

coping skills

Ways in which people manage and adapt in order to reduce stress or deal with difficult situations as they occur.

creative movement

Movement that evolves from the student’s own thoughts, ideas and imagination in response to stimuli.

critical inquiry approach

Method that focuses on how contextual factors influence the health, safety, wellbeing and physical activity participation of individuals, groups and communities. It provides opportunities for students to develop skills, self-efficacy and dispositions to advocate for, and positively influence, their own and others’ health and wellbeing. It involves critical analysis and critical evaluation of health and physical activity knowledge in order to make informed judgments and take appropriate action.

critically analyse

To break down and study the parts of an issue or information in order to form a critical judgment. It can involve asking questions, identifying problems and solutions, applying knowledge, stating an argument and supporting it with evidence, or making comparisons and evaluating.

critically evaluate

To assess an issue or information in order to form a critical judgment. It involves making informed judgments or decisions about the worth, validity and reliability of opinions, ideas and knowledge.

cultural diversity

The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society including differences in race, ethnicity, language, nationality and religion.

cultural identities

The feeling of belonging to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality and any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture.

cultural influences

Historical, geographical and familial factors that affect an individual’s ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge based on that person’s nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality and any kind of social group.

demonstrate

To give a practical exhibition or explanation.

describe

To give an account of characteristics or features which includes all relevant information.

design (verb)

To plan and evaluate the construction of a product or process.

develop

To elaborate or expand in detail.

dimensions of health

Variables that influence an individual’s level of overall health. Frequently referred to as physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual dimensions.

discrimination

The unjust or prejudicial treatment of an individual or group of individuals. Often with regard to,
e.g. race, gender; homophobia, transphobia.

discuss

Analyse carefully and give reasons for and against the different issues, ideas or problems involved.

dispositions

Enduring habits of mind and actions, and tendencies to respond to situations in characteristic ways, e.g. maintaining an optimistic outlook, being willing to persevere with challenges, or actively engaging in regular physical activity.

distinguish

Give the difference(s) between two or more items.

diversity

Differences that exist within a group including age, sex, gender, gender expression, sexuality, ethnicity, ability, body shape and composition, culture, religion, learning styles, socioeconomic background, values and experience. Appreciating, understanding and respecting diversity impacts on an individual’s sense of self and their relations to others. Diversity can be acknowledged through shared activities that may involve building knowledge and awareness, peer teaching, games, dance, food and festivals.

drug

Any substance (excluding food, water and oxygen) that, when taken into the body, alters its function physically or psychologically.

dynamic drills

Physical activities that usually incorporate the performance of multiple skills, often in game-like scenarios or situations that could be experienced in competition.

elements of movement

Variables that are combined in the composition and performance of movement. These elements are effort, time, space, objects and people.

emotional health

The ability to recognise, understand and effectively manage emotions and to use this knowledge when thinking, feeling and acting.

empathy

The ability to identify with or experience the thoughts, feelings or attitudes of another individual.

enhance

To add to, improve or increase; to build on assets and strengths that already exist for an individual, group or community.

ethical behaviour

The way in which an individual behaves that demonstrates honesty, fairness and equity, and respects the diversity and rights of others.

evaluate

Carefully appraise a problem or situation, citing both advantages and limitations. Reach a conclusion about the relative weight of both positive and negative points, without giving a personal opinion.

examine

To inquire into and determine the nature or condition of something.

explain

To clarify, interpret, and spell out the material you present. To give reasons for differences of opinion or of results, and try to analyse causes.

familiar (adj.)

Previously encountered in prior learning activities.

fluency

Skills performed with movement that is fluid, smooth and/or graceful.

force

A push or pull on an object through various means that may cause that object to move faster or slower or change its direction.

fundamental movement skills

The foundation for competent and confident participation in a range of physical activities. The fundamental movement skills to be developed through Health and Physical Education include:

  • locomotor and non-locomotor skills — rolling, balancing, sliding, jogging, running, leaping, jumping, hopping, dodging, galloping and skipping
  • object control skills — bouncing, throwing, catching, kicking, striking.

gender

Those characteristics of women and men that are socially constructed. It is complex and involves a number of components; including biological sex, i.e. male or female; gender identity, i.e. the psychological sense of being male or female; social sex role i.e. adherence to cultural norms of feminine and masculine behaviour.

gender diverse

Refers to people who fall outside the typical range of masculinity or femininity with regard to gender identity and/or physical sex characteristics. These individuals include many different groups such as transsexual, transgender, androgynous, people without sex and gender identity, and cross-dressers.

general motion

The result of a combination of linear and angular motion.

harm minimisation

A strategy that aims to lower the risks and harmful consequences associated with drug use and other high-risk behaviours, rather than simply promoting abstinence.

health literacy

Any message or advertising related to the health and wellbeing of people. These can be in the form of TV or magazine advertisements, media articles, product labelling, or portrayal of ‘healthy’ choices in the media.

health messages

Any message or advertising related to the health and wellbeing of people. These can be in the form of TV or magazine advertisements, media articles, product labelling, portrayal of ‘healthy’ choices in the media or messages from families and peer groups.

holistic health

A field of alternative medicine in which the body, mind and spirit or the physical, emotional/mental and spiritual aspects of the "whole person" is the focus not just the condition.

identify

To find an answer from a number of possibilities; recognise and name.

identities

Individual characteristics (including ideas, feelings and attitudes towards self-worth) and capabilities of a person, or characteristics of a social group.

initiative games

Fun, cooperative, challenging games that require groups to collaborate in order to solve a specific problem.

interpret

To translate; give examples of; to solve or to comment on a subject, usually while communicating own judgement.

intersex

Term relating to a range of innate biological traits or variations that lie between ‘male’ and ‘female’. An intersex person may have the biological attributes of both sexes or lack some of the biological attributes considered necessary to be defined as one or the other sex. Intersex is always congenital and can originate from genetic, chromosomal or hormonal variations. Historically, the term ‘hermaphrodite’ was used.

investigate

To plan, collect, interpret and draw conclusions about data/information.

justify

To show how an argument or conclusion is right or reasonable.

kinaesthetic

Relating to the sensation by which bodily position, weight, muscle tension and movement are perceived by an individual.

kinematic terms

Terminology used that refers to a body in motion with no consideration to its mass or any other forces.

kinetic

Relating to the motion of an object and the associated forces.

linear motion

Moving of the entire body the same distance and direction and at the same time.

locomotor skills

The skills used by an individual to move from one place to another. These skills include rolling, balancing, sliding, jogging, running, leaping, jumping, hopping, dodging, galloping and skipping.

manipulate

To handle or control an object or piece of equipment.

manipulative skills

Movement skills that require an ability to handle an object or piece of equipment with control. They include skills such as kicking, striking, dribbling or catching a ball. Can also be referred to as ‘object control skills’.

marginalisation

The process of reducing the importance of a person or group. This could lead to that person or group becoming excluded from a variety of situations or being ignored.

mental health

An individual’s cognitive and thinking processes, for example their capacity to think coherently, express thoughts and feelings and respond constructively to situations.

minor games

Simple games with few rules, designed to allow students to practise skills in a challenging situation.

modified games

Games or sports adapted to suit the skills and characteristics of students through alterations to rules, equipment and/or the playing field.

movement challenges

Movement tasks that require individual students or groups of students to solve a problem in order to successfully complete the task.

movement concepts and strategies

A framework for enhancing movement performance.

  • Movement concepts (or elements of movement) explored in the curriculum include body awareness, spatial awareness, effort awareness, and relationship to/with objects, people and space. Movement strategies refer to a variety of approaches that will help a player or team to successfully achieve a movement outcome or goal.
  • Movement strategies include moving into space to receive a pass from a team-mate or hitting the ball away from opponents in order to make it difficult to retrieve or return the ball. Different games and sports may require similar activities or goals and will therefore use similar movement strategies in order to achieve success.

movement exploration

Discovering the body’s potential for movement by experimenting with different ways of moving.

movement sequences

The combination of fundamental movement skills and movement elements to enable the body and/or objects to move in response to a stimulus.

movement situations

Any situation where students are moving with the intent of achieving an outcome, such as to score a goal, to perform a sequence, to retain possession, or to cross a creek.

natural settings

Places or areas such as parks or bushland that are formed by nature and not man-made.

non-locomotor skills

Moving on the spot without any change in location. Skills include twisting (the rotation of a selected body part around its long axis); bending (moving a joint); swaying i.e. fluidly and gradually shifting the centre of gravity from one body part to another; stretching i.e. moving body parts away from the centre of gravity; turning i.e. rotating the body along the long axis; swinging i.e. rhythmical, smooth motion of a body part resembling a pendulum.

object control skills

Movement skills that require an ability to handle an object or piece of equipment with control. They include skills such as kicking, striking, dribbling or catching a ball. Also referred to as manipulative skills.

online environments

The connection of computers/mobile devices to one or more computer/mobile device or network, such as the Internet.

online safety

A range of measures and strategies aimed at protecting people from becoming vulnerable to harmful content and malicious and illegal online activities.

outdoor education

Physical activity in the outdoors or natural settings which provides opportunities to connect as a community and to the natural environment.

persistence

The ability to continue with an opinion or action despite opposition or difficulty.

personal skills

An individuals abilities, aptitudes, strengths and capabilities.

physical activity

The process of moving the body that results in energy expenditure. Physical activity is a broad term that includes playing sport; exercise and fitness activities such as dance, yoga and tai chi; everyday activities such as walking to work, household chores and gardening; and many other forms of active recreation.

physical fitness

A measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently, effectively and without injury in work and leisure activities, to pursue recreational activities and to cope with emergency situations. It is commonly conceptualised as being made up of health-related components such as cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, body composition, muscular endurance and muscular strength and performance-related components such as agility, balance, coordination, reaction time, power and speed.

precision

The degree of accuracy with which a movement is performed.

predict

To give an expected result. Suggest what may happen based on available information.

prejudice

A preconceived opinion or feeling that is not based on prior knowledge, reason or experience.

preventive health

Measures which direct resources to the prevention of ill-health, the promotion of individual and community health and the reduction of health inequalities.

preventive health practices

Practices intended to protect, promote or maintain health and well-being and at the same time helping to prevent disease, disability or death.

projectile motion

Factors that affect the movement path of an object including the human body.

protective behaviours

A range of skills and strategies to help prevent and reduce child abuse and violence in the community.

punt

Kicking a ball that is released from the hands.

recognise

To be aware of or acknowledge.

recreation

Activity that people enjoy participating in during their free time and which is recognised as having socially worthwhile qualities. Active recreation requires physical exertion.

refusal skills

Skills that assist children and adolescents to avoid high risk behaviours such as sexual activity, crime, drug use or violence.

reproductive health

A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing in all matters relating to the reproductive system, at any stage of life.

resilience

The capacity to deal constructively with change or challenge, allowing the individual to maintain or re-establish their social and emotional wellbeing in the face of difficult events. It involves thoughts, feelings and actions.

resilient

Capable of dealing constructively with change or challenge, allowing the individual to maintain or re-establish their social and emotional wellbeing in the face of difficult events.

respond

To react or reply.

same-sex attracted

A term used to describe someone who is attracted to a person of their own sex, whether or not sexual behaviour is involved.

sedentary behaviour

Sitting or lying down. Activities that do not increase energy expenditure higher than resting levels, for example, watching television, gaming, or using a computer and other devices.

select

To choose in preference to another or others.

self-efficacy

An individual’s belief in their ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal or completing a task, such as maintaining healthy and active habits, acquiring a new movement skill or meeting a personal challenge.

sense of place

A physical, social, emotional and/or spiritual connection to a place which shapes personal and social identities, perspectives and interactions.

sense of self

An individual’s perception of ‘self’ and how they perceive their place in the world in relation to a range of personal characteristics and cultural norms and expectations.

sexual health

A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing in relation to sexuality. It requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.

sexuality

A central aspect of being human throughout life. It encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction, and is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors.

social health

The ability to interact with the people around them and with social institutions, social values and norms.

social justice principles

Principles that guide the rights of all people in our community which are considered in a fair and equitable manner. They may include things like access, e.g. to goods and services, equity, rights, and participation.

social skills

Skills used to interact with other people which can involve both verbal and non-verbal communication.

societal influences

A change in an individual’s thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviours that results from interaction with another individual or group within a society.

societal norms

Behaviours, values, beliefs or attitudes as set out by a society or group.

solve

To work out a solution to a problem.

spatial awareness

The ability of an individual to be aware of, and make decisions regarding, their position in relation to space, objects or people.

spiritual health

A positive sense of belonging, meaning and purpose in life. It includes values and beliefs that influence the way people live, and can be influenced by an individual’s connection to themselves, others, nature and beyond.

sport

Human activity which involves physical exertion and skill, where an individual or team competes against others.

static drills

Simple drills often performed between two players which involves repetitive performance in fixed practice.

stereotypes

A standard/conventional image used to categorise a number of people based on such characteristics as gender, sexuality, culture or physical appearance.

strategy

The identification of goals in preparation for a competitive situation.

strengths-based approach

An approach that focuses on the capacities, competencies, values and hopes that all students, regardless of their current circumstances, will optimise their own health and that of others.

suggest

To propose an idea, solution or other possible explanation for consideration.

summarise

To provide the main points or facts in condensed form, e.g. précis of a chapter, omitting details and illustrations.

summation of forces

The production of force through the sequential movement of various parts of the body in order to produce the optimum amount.

synthesise

To combine elements, e.g. information/ideas/components, into a coherent whole.

tactic

The use of individual or team skills and methods in order to achieve an outcome or support a pre-determined strategy.

tactical skills

Specific sport skills, movements or decisions that a player or team can use to achieve an outcome.

transgender

Most commonly the term is used by those whose gender identity is different from the sex assigned to them at birth.

transitions

Internal processes or psychological reorientation people experience as a result of change, and usually involves establishing new behaviours or new ways of thinking before the change can work. Individuals experience transitions in different ways and at different rates. Transition involves three stages: a letting go of the way things are or used to be; a period of exploration and adjustment; and a final stage where new behaviours and ways of working evolve.

transphobia

A fear or hatred of transgender people. Transphobia is manifested in a number of ways, including violence, harassment and discrimination.

understand

To perceive what is meant by and be thoroughly familiar with an idea.

values

The relative worth, merit or importance regarding what is good or bad. A person’s values will often be reflected in their behaviour or decision making process.

wellbeing

The state of being satisfied, happy and/or healthy. Relates to effective social functioning and spiritual health and the dispositions of optimism, openness, curiosity and resilience.