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Curriculum updated: .
Vietnamese: 7-10 learning area contacts:
Years 7 and 8 Band Description
The nature of the learners
Students who enter the background language learner pathway in Vietnamese in Year 7 may have strong connections to Vietnamese language and culture through family and community, and varying degrees of oracy in Vietnamese. Their textual knowledge developed through English literacy supports the development of literacy in Vietnamese. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive.
Vietnamese language learning and use
Learners use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and increasingly generate original and personal language. They create spoken and written texts for a variety of audiences in different contexts. They plan, draft and present imaginative texts, and design interactive events and collaborative tasks. They express ideas and feelings (Tôi thích ăn phở. Tôi thích xem phim hơn đọc sách. Hôm nay tôi vui), exchange opinions (Phim này hay quá. Trường tôi rộng rãi và sạch sẽ), and manage shared activities (Bạn làm bài xong chưa? Làm ơn giải thích chữ này giùm tôi! Tôi đọc cho bạn viết nha). Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. Learners explore Vietnamese syntax and structures in a range of texts and begin to use metalanguage by identifying grammatical terms. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences through interaction with an increasing range of Vietnamese speakers.
Contexts of interaction
Learners come to the classroom understanding and using Vietnamese within the world of their experience, which is likely to be home and community domains. At this level, topics of discussion include the world of learning, for example, discussing the shift from primary to secondary school, the concepts of home and friendship, shared events and leisure activities. Learners contextualise and use their background language and culture as much as possible while socialising and exchanging information. This will not necessarily be characterised by the fluent use of Vietnamese, but rather by the way they use their background knowledge of Vietnamese language and culture in communication. These interactions should be authentic in relating to the world of teenage experience, and performance based. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided through purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and online activities such as e-learning.
Texts and resources
Learners work with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They also use authentic materials such as blogs, newsletters, advertisements, magazines, video clips and apps. Their knowledge is extended through exploration of Vietnamese texts on the internet, and audiovisual materials (for example, đồng dao, ca dao, dân ca, bài hát thiếu nhi (Chúc Mừng Sinh Nhật, Tiếng Chuông Giáng Sinh), phim tài liệu (Luke Nguyen in Vietnam), truyện cổ tích, truyện ngụ ngôn), cultural performances, and community events and activities, for example, tết Nguyên đán, tết Trung thu. In particular, as background language learners they are also likely to engage with bilingual, subtitled and captioned texts.
Features of Vietnamese language use
Learners recognise and use features of the Vietnamese sound and writing systems, including tones and tone markers, and apply appropriate pronunciation and spelling rules in spoken and written texts. They apply elements of Vietnamese grammar to the production of texts, such as appropriate word order, common nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and conjunctions, to describe people, actions and events (Tôi cao và ốm. Tôi có mắt đen. Bạn Lan học giỏi và hát hay. Ngày Tết có múa lân), express courtesy and opinions (Thưa ông bà/ba mẹ/thầy cô. Làm ơn cho tôi mượn tập! Cảm ơn bạn. Học tiếng Việt vui quá), and link ideas and information in different types of affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences (Tôi thích xem phim hơn đọc sách. Tôi biết nói nhưng không biết viết tiếng Việt. Bạn sinh ở Úc hay ở Việt Nam?…). They understand ways in which the English language works as a system and how English is similar to and different from Vietnamese. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine ways in which people, issues and circumstances are represented.
Level of support
Learners have varying degrees of Vietnamese oracy and literacy, and are supported through multilevel and differentiated tasks. Support includes scaffolding, modelling and monitoring, explicit instruction and feedback, structured activities for practising new language, and the use of gesture and movement. Students are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust their language use in response to their experience in diverse contexts. Opportunities to review and consolidate knowledge are an important component of learning at this level.
The role of English
Vietnamese is the main language of instruction and interaction. Vietnamese and English may be used when discussing concepts, functions and structures relating to language use, and when exchanging and comparing experiences in learning Vietnamese and English. English may be used for conceptually demanding explanations and discussions, particularly when making connections between Vietnamese and other languages and cultures. Learners are encouraged to reflect on cultural values and practices and how these relate to their own sense of identity from a bilingual perspective.
Translate and interpret short texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, identifying aspects that are similar or different and words or phrases that translate easily or with difficulty
[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, identifying]
Create a range of bilingual texts and resources such as captions, signs, posters, digital picture dictionaries or menus to assist language learning in the classroom and in the school community
[Key concepts: meaning, equivalence; Key processes: creating, translating]
Compare personal responses and reactions during interactions in Vietnamese and English, noticing how interaction involves culture as well as language
[Key concepts: intercultural communication, impact of culture; Key processes: comparing, reflecting]
Reflect on own biography, including family origins, traditions and beliefs, considering how it impacts on identity and shapes intercultural communication
[Key concepts: bilingualism, biculturalism, significance; Key processes: reflecting, connecting]
Socialise and interact with peers and the teacher to exchange information on topics relating to self, family, friends and interests, and to express opinions, likes and dislikes
[Key concepts: family, friendship, home; Key processes: interacting, socialising, describing]
Participate in guided and shared activities, such as role-plays, performances and presentations, that involve planning, deciding, making arrangements and completing transactions
[Key concepts: task, performance, presentation; Key processes: planning, deciding, making arrangements]
Interact with peers in class routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, following instructions and requesting support, for example, by asking for repetition, rephrasing and explanation
[Key concepts: routines, roles; Key processes: questioning, contributing, responding]
Identify and use information such as topic, main ideas and specific points in a range of spoken, written, visual, digital and multi-modal texts
[Key concept: information; Key processes: obtaining, reading, listening, classifying]
Present information and ideas relating to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written, digital and multi-modal forms using modelled language structures
[Key concepts: self, community, environment; Key processes: composing, presenting, informing]
Engage with a range of imaginative texts, including multimodal and digital texts, such as cartoons, folk tales, picture books, comics, poems and songs, and identify and describe key elements such as theme, setting, characters and actions
[Key concepts: imagination, theme, characters; Key processes: identifying, describing, responding]
Create texts, including multimodal and digital texts, or adapt familiar imaginative texts for a range of audiences, using modelled language structures and different modes of presentation to enhance effect
[Key concepts: adaptation, mode, presentation; Key processes: re-creating, presenting, experimenting]
Systems of language
Recognise the features of the Vietnamese sound and writing system, including tones and tonemarkers, and explore Vietnamese pronunciation and spelling rules
[Key concepts: sound and writing system, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, comparing]
Develop knowledge of common grammatical elements and structures such as nouns, personal pronouns, adjectives, verbs, compound words, adverbs of frequency, conjunctions, statements, negations and questions, to describe events, actions and qualities of people and objects, and to express courtesy and opinions
[Key concepts: nouns, adjectives, verb forms, word order; Key processes: understanding, applying]
Examine the structures and language features of a range of short familiar personal texts, including descriptive, informative and imaginative texts, and identify audience and purpose
[Key concepts: text structure, audience, purpose; Key processes: recognising, comparing, analysing]
Language variation and change
Recognise some of the common variations in Vietnamese language used in different settings and contexts, for example, at home, at school, at the market or in the bank
[Key concepts: register, context; Key processes: recognising, comparing, analysing]
Recognise the dynamic nature of the Vietnamese language and how it has changed over time through interaction with other languages and cultures
[Key concepts: dynamism, influence; Key processes: comparing, analysing]
Role of language and culture
Identify connections between cultural practices and language use in intercultural exchange, recognising how meaning may be culturally specific
[Key concepts: interdependence, meaning; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, making connections]
By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Vietnamese to interact with peers and the teacher to exchange personal information (for example, Em tên Nam. Em mười hai tuổi. Em sinh ở Úc), describe feelings (for example, Em vui/hạnh phúc) and express preferences (for example, Em thích chơi thể thao. Em thích ăn phở hơn hủ tíu). When participating in collaborative activities and classroom routines, they use modelled language to complete transactions, to ask and respond to questions (for example, Bạn học trường nào? Gia đình tôi có bốn người), to follow instructions (for example, Các em hãy chú ý/ chép bài này vào tập!), to request support and permission (for example, Xin cô vui lòng lặp lại/giải thích chữ này. Thưa thầy/cô, cho em đi vệ sinh), and to make arrangements (for example, Thứ Bảy này mình đi coi phim nha). When interacting, they use the features of the sound system, including tones, to pronounce words and expressions, and form affirmative (for example, Em ăn cơm), negative (for example, Em không ăn cơm), interrogative (for example, Em ăn cơm không?) and imperative (for example, Ăn cơm đi!) sentences. Students locate specific information in a range of texts and present information and ideas related to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written and digital forms using modelled languagestructures. They share their responses to a range of imaginative texts by identifying and describing key elements and expressing opinions. They create or adapt familiar imaginative texts for a range of audiences, using common adverbs of sequence such as trước hết, kế đến and sau cùng to organise and link ideas. They use personal pronouns (for example, tôi, bạn, em, con, anh, chị, cô, ông, bà), nouns (for example, bạn, học sinh, thầy giáo, cô giáo, cha mẹ, cái bàn, cây viết, con chó, trái cam), adjectives (for example, già, trẻ, lớn, nhỏ, tốt, hiền, thông minh, chăm chỉ), verbs (for example, ăn, uống, ngủ, nói, đọc, học, chạy, đi bộ), adverbs (for example, hay, giỏi, nhanh, chậm) and conjunctions (for example, và, hay, vì, nhưng). They apply rules of the Vietnamese writing system to spell familiar words, including tone markers. They translate and interpret short texts, identifying words that are not easily translated, such as cúng, bánh chưng/bánh tét, and createbilingual texts to support their own learning and for the school community. They compare ways of communicating in Vietnamese and English and explain how their own biography influences their cultural identity and ways of communicating.
Students identify the tones of spoken and written Vietnamese. They identify Vietnamese sound–letter relationships, the formation of consonants clusters (for example, ch, nh, th, tr, ph), diphthongs (for example, ai, ao, au), triphthongs (for example, oai, ươi), and vowel–consonant combinations such as an, am, ac, at. They compare the structural and language features of Vietnamese and English in personal, informative and imaginative texts, identifying audience and purpose. They describe how language use varies according to setting and context. Students provide examples of how the Vietnamese language has changed over time, identifying Vietnamese words that have emerged through contact with other languages, for example, cà rốt, cà phê, căn-tin. They identify cultural practices that are embedded in language use and communication styles, such as use of the terms dạ/thưa to express politeness and respect.
Years 9 and 10 Band Description
The nature of the learners
Learners increasingly communicate in Vietnamese in everyday interactions and in domains that are beyond the home. They continue to be immersed in Vietnamese language and culture, making connections and comparisons with other languages and cultures. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They begin to consider their role as bilingual, intercultural communicators in the Australian context. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Vietnamese may feature in these.
Vietnamese language learning and use
This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication. Learners use Vietnamese to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, and to participate in imaginative and creative experiences. There is a balance between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that moving between Vietnamese and English involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Students discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the concept of being bilingual and bicultural.
Contexts of interaction
Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts beyond the home. Contexts of interaction in Vietnamese move beyond the immediate world of teenage experience to more active participation in events or celebrations at home (Sinh nhật con ba mẹ làm BBQ ở vườn sau đi. Con sẽ giúp mẹ nấu nướng và dọn dẹp) or transactions with people in the local community (Cô có thể giảm giá cho học sinh không? Làm ơn cho tôi đổi lại số lớn hơn). Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and about life experiences in different contexts and cultures. They view and/or listen to advertisements, announcements, conversations, television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Vietnamese language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.
Texts and resources
Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Vietnamese in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Vietnamese-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.
Features of Vietnamese language use
Learners apply appropriate pronunciation of sounds and tones, as well as rhythm and intonation, to a range of spoken texts. They use vocabulary with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain greater control of grammatical elements such as word order, sentence structures and punctuation. They use cohesive devices such as conjunctions (và, hay/hoặc, tuy…nhưng, nếu…thì, vì…cho nên), verbs to express modality (nên, cần, phải), direct and indirect speech (Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’. Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học), abstract vocabulary (tình thương, sở thích, nỗi buồn, niềm vui, hạnh phúc) and common idioms (xa mặt cách lòng, tiền rừng bạc biển, có chí thì nên) to communicate, link and extend ideas and information. They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, popular culture, migration and globalisation influence forms of communication. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between Vietnamese and English affects their ways of thinking and behaving, and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They consider their own cultural practices from a bilingual perspective and communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.
Level of support
This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online journalling, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention to grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.
The role of English
The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Vietnamese being the principal language of communication. Vietnamese and English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection, although learners at this level are able to discuss some abstract and complex views and ideas about language, culture and intercultural experience in Vietnamese. Learners explore the influence of both Vietnamese and English on their way of communicating, and examine how living and moving between cultures has impacted on their own bilingual identity.
Initiate and sustain face-to-face and online interactions with peers and adults to share personal opinions, and compare ideas and experiences on familiar topics such as friendship, leisure activities, teenage life and special events
[Key concepts: experience, relationships; Key processes: interacting, expressing, sharing]
Participate in planning and decision making for social and cultural events, negotiating options, explaining, justifying, solving problems and completing transactions
[Key concepts: collaboration, decisions; Key processes: transacting, negotiating, explaining, justifying]
Contribute to shared learning experiences and structured discussions relating to the learning of Vietnamese language and culture, clarifying understanding, elaborating on opinions, and expressing agreement or disagreement
[Key concepts: task, performance; Key processes: discussing, commenting, sharing]
Compare, evaluate and use information and ideas from diverse print, visual, digital and online sources representing different perspectives related to common areas of interest and study
[Key concepts: diverse perspectives, representation; Key processes: analysing, evaluating, comparing]
Convey information and opinions on a variety of selected topics using diverse modes of presentation to suit specific audiences and purposes, and applying conventions of text types
[Key concepts: representation, audience, purpose; Key processes: informing, selecting]
Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary forms of art and entertainment, and imaginative and creative texts, including digital texts, describing and discussing themes, values, plot and representations of characters and events, and expressing preferences
[Key concepts: morality, characterisation, themes; Key processes: responding, expressing preference, discussing]
Create imaginative texts in multimodal and digital forms that draw on past experiences or future possibilities, for a range of purposes, such as self-expression or engagement, and for a range of audiences
[Key concepts: journey, adventure, emotion; Key processes: imagining, sequencing, entertaining]
Translate and interpret texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, compare different versions of translations, explore differences and identify strategies to overcome challenges in translation
[Key concepts: culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: analysing, considering, comparing]
Produce bilingual resources in multimodal and digital forms for the school and local community, such as travel brochures, comics, blogs or video clips, considering the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another
[Key concepts: bilingualism, culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
Reflect on own ways of communicating in Vietnamese and English, recognising that intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for meaning-making
[Key concepts: intercultural awareness, values; Key processes: reflecting, adjusting]
Reflect on own sense of identity as a Vietnamese and English speaker, and discuss ways in which identity is expressed in intercultural communication
[Key concepts: identity, culture, intercultural interaction; Key processes: recognising, explaining, evaluating]
Systems of language
Apply knowledge of sounds, tones and spelling to spoken and written Vietnamese, inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in a range of contexts, and explore intonation patterns and pauses in a range of sentences
[Key concepts: inference, connections; Key processes: applying, inferring]
Expand grammatical and vocabulary knowledge to communicate, link and extend ideas, for example, using cohesive devices such as conjunctions, verbs to express modality, direct/indirect speech, abstract vocabulary and common Vietnamese idioms
[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: experimenting, applying]
Analyse the relationship between context, purpose and audience, language features and cultural elements associated with different types of texts in actual or online contexts
[Key concepts: register, text organisation, purpose, audience, culture; Key processes: analysing, explaining, applying]
Language variation and change
Identify and analyse linguistic features of Vietnamese that vary according to purpose and relationships
[Key concepts: variation, style, register; Key processes: analysing, comparing, explaining]
Understand how the Vietnamese language has evolved and how it continues to change over time and from place to place due to processes such as globalisation and migration, and the influence of technology and popular culture
[Key concepts: impact, power, globalisation; Key processes: analysing, evaluating]
Role of language and culture
Explore how language and culture are interrelated and how they shape and are shaped by each other
[Key concept: interrelationship; Key processes: exploring, critical thinking, evaluating]
By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Vietnamese to initiate and sustain interactions with teachers, peers and adults in familiar contexts, for example, Bạn thích nghe loại nhạc nào? Tôi thích nghe nhạc trẻ. Bạn thích ca sĩ và bài hát nào nhất? Tại sao? Tôi thích ca sĩ Lynda Miles vì cô ấy hát hay và nhảy đẹp. Bài hát tôi thích nhất là My Best Moments vì nó giúp tôi thấy vui vẻ và yêu đời. They use modelled and spontaneous language to engage in discussions, seek clarification, offer opinions, compare experiences related to familiar topics (for example, Học tiếng Việt có nhiều lợi ích lắm. Tôi thích đi du lịch ở ngoại quốc hơn là ở trong nước. Đồ ăn ở Việt Nam tươi và ngon nhưng không sạch sẽ bằng ở Úc), and express agreement or disagreement (for example, Bạn nói đúng lắm/Tôi cũng nghĩ vậy. Xin lỗi, tôi không nghĩ vậy/tôi có ý kiến khác với bạn). They interact with others to carry out transactions and to plan and organise social or cultural events by negotiating options, and explaining and justifying opinions, for example, Bạn muốn tổ chức sinh nhật ở nhà hay ở trường? Chúng mình nên tham gia gây quỹ để cứu trợ nạn nhân bão lụt. They apply appropriate pronunciation in spoken Vietnamese, including intonation patterns, tones and pauses. Students analyse information and ideas obtained from diverse sources, comparing and evaluating different perspectives related to common areas of interest and study. They present information and opinions using different text types and modes of presentation appropriate to a variety of audiences and to achieve different purposes. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing preferences and describing key elements such as themes, values, plot, and representations of characters and events. They createimaginative texts for the purpose of self-expression and engagement, using cohesive devices such as conjunctions to communicate, link and extend ideas, and common Vietnamese idioms, proverbs or folk songs for illustration of cultural concepts or aspects. When writing, they use verbs to express modality (for example, nên, cần, phải), direct speech (for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’) and indirect speech (for example, Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học), and apply Vietnamese spelling rules and tone markers to a range of words. They translate and interpret texts using strategies to overcome challenges in translation, such as considering cultural expressions or representations, and explain differences in interpretation. Students create a range of multimodal bilingual resources for the school and local community. They explain the relationship between language, culture and identity, and modify language and behaviours in intercultural interactions to enhance mutual understanding.
Students infer the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in a range of familiar contexts by applying knowledge of grammatical elements and vocabulary. They analyse the relationship between cultural representations, language choices, and the audience and purpose of different text types. They identify and analyse linguistic features of Vietnamese in a range of situations, explaining variations due to audience and purpose. They explain the impact of social, cultural and intercultural influences on language, identifying and using Vietnamese words that have emerged from globalisation, migration, popular culture and technology, such as toàn cầu hóa, di dân, định cư, hội nhập, nhạc trẻ, công nghệ thông tin, nhật ký điện tử, nói chuyện qua mạng. They explain ways in which language and culture are interrelated and influence each other.