Vietnamese: F-10


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Vietnamese: F-10

F-2 Syllabus

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with varying degrees of early literacy capability in Vietnamese and/or English. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people in settings outside the home, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Vietnamese is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy, with each supporting and enriching the other. Vietnamese is used at home and in familiar Vietnamese-speaking settings, and in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of materials and resources, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play, imaginative activities, games, music, dance and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding for language development. Repetition and consolidation help learners to identify familiar and new words and simple phrases, and to recognise the purpose of simple texts. Learners use Vietnamese for functions such as greeting, asking and answering questions (for example, Em chào thầy/cô. Chào bạn. Bạn tên là gì? Tôi tên là Mai), responding to instructions (for example, Các em ngồi xuống. Mở vở ra đọc với cô), and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks. There is a natural transition from spoken to written language. Learners use a variety of cues, including images, context and frequently used word patterns, to comprehend texts and to communicate.

Contexts of interaction

The primary contexts for interaction in Vietnamese are the immediate environments of home and the classroom. Learners use Vietnamese to interact with each other and the teacher within the learning environment at school and with immediate family members at home. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) enriches the learning of Vietnamese language and culture by providing alternative experiences, a range of resources, and opportunities to access authentic language in different contexts.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, written and visual texts such as children’s songs and nursery rhymes, stories from Big Books, plays and interactive resources. Writing skills progress from identifying the alphabet and tone markers to tracing, labelling and copying letters, and then to constructing simple, short texts using familiar vocabulary.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners become familiar with how the sounds and tones of the Vietnamese language are represented in words and symbols. They practise pronunciation through activities such as singing Vietnamese folk songs (đồng dao, ca dao), and experiment with sounds, single vowels, consonants, syllables, simple phrases and sentences relating to pictures, objects and actions, for example, cho mẹ, má, mèo, mua andcho hoa hồng, hát, học. Đây là cái nhà. Em bé đang ngủ. They learn to recognise the letters of the Vietnamese alphabet and tone markers, making comparisons with the English alphabet, and write letters, words and simple sentences, for example, Con thích ăn cơm. They share similarities and differences between the ways they communicate in Vietnamese and English, and begin to recognise how language use changes according to speakers and context.

Level of support

The classroom is a new context for communication, where learners rely on the teacher to assist their learning. The teacher uses scaffolding, modelling, cueing, monitoring, feedback and encouragement to support learning experiences. Multiple and varied sources of input and stimulus are provided, for example, bilingual Big Books and picture books, subtitled cartoons and video programs, realia, objects, maps, charts and gestures.

The role of English

Vietnamese is used as the medium for class interaction and to demonstrate and model new language acquisition. English may be used to explain features of language and aspects of culture. Both English and Vietnamese may be used when learners communicate about similarities and differences between Vietnamese and other languages and cultures and reflecting on how they communicate and behave in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts.



Interact with peers and the teacher by introducing themselves and expressing needs, wishes, likes and dislikes

[Key concepts: belonging, preferences; Key processes: greeting, expressing preferences]

Participate in guided group activities such as songs, rhymes, games and transactions, using modelled repetitive language

[Key concepts: play, performance, action learning; Key processes: giving and following instructions, active listening, speaking]

Interact in classroom routines and activities by responding to questions, following instructions and asking for permission

[Key concepts: roles, routines; Key processes: following instructions, listening, observing]


Identify key words and specific information related to their personal world in simple spoken, written,digital and visual texts

[Key concept: personal world; Key processes: listening, viewing, identifying, locating]

Share information about self, family, school and friends, using modelled sentence structures and illustrations to support meaning

[Key concepts: self, family, school, friends; Key processes: describing, presenting]


Participate in shared reading, viewing of or listening to imaginative texts and respond through miming, acting, matching pictures with text or answering questions

[Key concepts: imagination, response; Key processes: participating, listening, matching]

Create and perform simple imaginative texts such as chants, songs and stories, using familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression

[Key concepts: performance, expression; Key processes: experimenting, labelling, captioning]


Translate and interpret familiar Vietnamese words, phrases and expressions

[Key concepts: language, meaning; Key process: translating]

Create bilingual texts in both Vietnamese and English for the immediate learning environment such as labels, captions, wall charts and other resources

[Key concepts: representation, equivalence; Key processes: labelling, captioning]


Identify themselves as members of different groups, including the Vietnamese class, the school, their family and the community, describing their roles within these groups

[Key concepts: self, roles, belonging; Key processes: recognising, connecting, describing]

Identify themselves as members of different groups, including the Vietnamese class, the school, their family and the community, describing their roles within these groups

[Key concepts: self, roles, belonging; Key processes: recognising, connecting, describing]


Systems of language

Recognise the sounds and tones of spoken Vietnamese, and notice how they are represented in words and symbols

[Key concepts: sound systems, writing systems; Key process: recognising]

Understand some first elements of Vietnamese grammar, such as personal pronouns, frequently used nouns, adjectives, verbs and prepositions, and basic rules of word order in simple sentences

[Key concepts: syntax, vocabulary; Key process: recognising]

Explore different types of familiar texts, such as captions, labels, songs, rhymes and fairy tales, noticing similarities and differences between text types

[Key concept: familiar texts; Key process: recognising]

Language variation and change

Recognise that there are variations in the way Vietnamese speakers greet and address different people

[Key concept: register; Key process: recognising]

Recognise that Australia is a multilingual society and that Vietnamese is one of the major community languages in Australia

[Key concept: language power; Key processes: understanding, recognising, comparing]

Role of language and culture

Understand that the ways in which people use language reflect their cultures, and relate to where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: language, culture, identity; Key processes: understanding, noticing]

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through action-related talk and play. They introduce themselves and others, and express thanks, likes and dislikes, needs and wishes, for example, Tôi tên là LanCảm ơn bạnTôi thích/ không thích Tôi muốn ăn cơmChúc bạn sinh nhật vui vẻ. They use modelled repetitive language when participating in games and shared activities, and interact in classroom routines by responding to questions, following instructions and asking for permission, for example, Dạ, em xong rồi. Các em hãy đọc theo cô. Thưa cô cho em đi uống nước. When interacting, they use the sounds and tones of Vietnamese and distinguish between questions, such as Ai? Ở đâu? Khi nào? không?, and commands, for example, Đứng lên. They identify information and key words, such as names of people, for example, cô An, bạn Hải; places, for example, trường, lớp; or objects, for example, cái bàn; and convey information about themselves and their family, friends and school using modelled sentences and illustrations. They respond to imaginative experiences through miming, acting, and answering questions, and create and perform simple imaginative texts using familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression. Students use familiar vocabulary related to the classroom and home environment. They use simple sentences with appropriate word order to communicate information about themselves, for example, Tôi bảy tuổi, their family and the classroom, for example, Đây là gia đình tôi/ lớp tôi. Students translate frequently used words and simple phrases and createsimple bilingual texts for the immediate learning environment. They describe the experience of using Vietnamese and identify their roles as members of different groups, including the Vietnamese class and their family and community.

Students identify the sounds and tones of the Vietnamese language in words and symbols. They identify similarities and differences between different types of familiar texts. They provide examples of the different titles and greetings that are used to address people in different situations. Students name some of the many languages used in Australia, identifying Vietnamese as one of the major community languages. They identify how the ways in which people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them.

3-4 Syllabus

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their membership of various groups, including the Vietnamese class and community. They are further developing literacy capabilities in both Vietnamese and English, as well as biliteracy capabilities. They benefit from multimodal, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Learners interact with family and the wider Vietnamese-speaking community, and at school with their peers and the teacher in a variety of communicative activities. Specific language-learning skills such as memory and communication strategies are developed. Learners primarily engage in a variety of listening and viewing activities, and understand familiar stories, songs and poems. They use Vietnamese in everyday interactions such as seeking advice, asking for help and clarifying information or ideas, for example, Thưa cô, chữ ‘Việt’ đánh vần thế nào ạ? Làm ơn giúp tôi trả lời câu này. Thưa cô ‘lễ phép’ là gì ạ? They participate in discussions such as sharing information about their routines and leisure activities, and their feelings about themselves and their home, friendships and interests. They explore Vietnamese language and culture through experimentation with Vietnamese rhymes (đồng dao, vè) and proverbs (tục ngữ). They listen to and view children’s songs, music performances, television shows and films, and use their imagination to create simple texts such as songs, dialogues and stories. They understand the function of basic grammatical features and sentence structure, and apply this understanding when describing actions, people and objects in simple texts such as messages, notes and emails to friends and relatives.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which students interact in learning and using Vietnamese are primarily the classroom, school and home. They have access to wider communities of Vietnamese speakers and resources through out-of-classroom activities and the use of virtual and digital technology. They work both independently and cooperatively, further developing their sense of personal as well as group identity, and of the cultural and intercultural significance of family relationships.

Texts and resources

Learners develop biliteracy skills through interacting with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Texts such as recipes, weather reports and family profiles show how language is used in different ways and for different purposes.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners explore Vietnamese sounds and spelling strategies to further develop their speaking and writing skills and initial understanding of their developing biliteracy. They compare the formation of Vietnamese and English nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions to extend their vocabulary, and use simple sentences to provide information about places (Nhà tôi ở gần trường học), people (Mẹ tôi có mái tóc dài), events (Hôm qua là Tết Trung thu) and time (Tôi đi ngủ lúc 9 giờ tối). They begin to develop a metalanguage for understanding and discussing language features, and make connections and comparisons between such features in English and Vietnamese. Comparing the structures and patterns of Vietnamese with those of English helps learners understand both languages, assisting in the development of their biliteracy skills.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves extensive support through scaffolding. Teachers model what is expected, introduce language concepts and resources needed to manage and complete tasks, and make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting, providing support for self-monitoring and reflection. Support includes a range of spoken, written, visual and interactive resources, such as puppet plays, songs, video clips and digital games.

The role of English

Learners use Vietnamese in classroom routines, social interactions, learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. Vietnamese and English are used for discussion, explanation and reflection, as learners become aware of the interdependence of Vietnamese language and culture and make comparisons with other languages and cultures. They discuss and begin to explore connections between culture and language use, and the significance of certain traditions and practices, for example, the use of ông, bà, ba, mẹ, anh or chị to address older people or siblings in Vietnamese rather than addressing them by their first names as in English.



Share with peers and the teacher information and experiences relating to self, family and friends

[Key concepts: self, family, friends; Key processes: exchanging, describing]

Participate in collaborative tasks that involve planning and simple transactions

[Key concept: collaboration; Key processes: participating, contributing, transacting]

Participate in everyday classroom activities by seeking clarification, advice and help from others

[Key concept: participation; Key processes: advising, requesting]


Locate and organise information relating to familiar contexts from a range of spoken, written, digital and visual texts

[Key concepts: routines, pastimes; Key processes: identifying, listening, viewing, reading, organising]

Present information relating to familiar contexts in modelled spoken, written and visual texts in different modes, including digital and multimodal

[Key concepts: time, home, neighbourhood; Key processes: presenting, selecting]


Respond to imaginative texts such as fables, folk tales, songs and stories by identifying favourite elements and making simple statements about settings, characters and events

[Key concepts: setting, ideas, character, event; Key processes: responding, identifying]

Create and perform imaginative texts such as captions, chants, raps, dialogues and stories, using formulaic expressions, modelled language and visual supports

[Key concepts: imagination, experience; Key processes: creating, performing]


Translate and interpret words and expressions in simple Vietnamese and English texts, noticing similarities and differences or non-equivalence of words and expressions

[Key concept: equivalence; Key process: comparing translations]

Create simple bilingual texts such as signs or notices, digital picture dictionaries and word banks for the classroom and the school community

[Key concept: representation; Key processes: selecting, translating]


Reflect on their experiences as Vietnamese background speakers when interacting in English and Vietnamese, identifying differences in language use and behaviours

[Key concepts: culture, language, behaviour; Key processes: examining, connecting]

Explore their own sense of identity, including elements such as family, background, experiences, and ways of using language in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts

[Key concepts: communication, identity; Key processes: reflecting, adjusting]


Systems of language

Experiment with pronunciation and spelling of Vietnamese vowels, consonants and tone markers

[Key concepts: pronunciation, spelling; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, applying]

Develop knowledge of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs to describe actions, people and objects, and express possession

[Key concepts: verb forms, adjectives; Key processes: noticing, applying]

Recognise the features and purpose of a range of familiar texts such as stories, greeting cards, recipes, advertisements and posters

[Key concepts: audience, text structure; Key processes: identifying, comparing, classifying]

Language variation and change

Explore how language use varies according to the age, gender and relationship of participants and the context

[Key concept: variation; Key processes: identifying, understanding]


  • exploring the influence of English on informal language used in daily interactions by Vietnamese people in Australia, for example, đi ‘shop’, xem‘TV’, nghe ‘radio’, dùng ‘internet’ and the use of terms such as ‘OK’, ‘hello’ and ‘shopping’
  • recognising that many Vietnamese words are derived from other languages, including French (ba lê/‘ballet’, cà phê/‘café’), English (internet, căn-tin/‘canteen’) and Chinese (phụ huynh, tổ quốc)
  • understanding that some languages are continuously evolving, others are endangered, and some are being revived, with particular reference to indigenous languages used throughout the world, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia
  • reflecting on changes in language practices in modern Vietnamese, and making comparisons with traditional Vietnamese, for example, sử ký and lịch sử, thầy u and ba mẹ, sư phụ and thầy cô
Role of language and culture

Make connections between cultural practices and language use, such as culture-specific terms or expressions in Vietnamese and English

[Key concepts: behaviours, practices; Key processes: identifying, making connections]

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 4, students use Vietnamese to interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information and experiences relating to themselves, their family and friends. They use formulaic expressions to participate in simple transactional exchanges and collaborative activities, and to seek clarification, assistance or advice in everyday classroom routines, for example, Làm ơn cho biết. When interacting, they use features of Vietnamese pronunciation, including tones, vowels and consonants. Students locate information relating to familiar contexts and present it in modelled spoken, written and visual texts. They respond to imaginative texts by identifying favourite elements and making simple statements about settings, characters or events, and create simple imaginative texts using formulaic expressions and modelled language. Students use common action verbs (for example, đi, ăn, ngủ, chơi, chạy, nói, cười, làm, học), adjectives (for example, đẹp, xấu, tốt, đen, đỏ) and adverbs (for example, nhanh, chậm, hay, giỏi), to create short, simple sentences about their routines and interests. They use vocabulary related to school, home and everyday routines. They use appropriate word order and personal pronouns in simple spοken and written texts, for example, Đây là con mèo con của tôi/anh/em/cháu. They translate and compare common Vietnamese and English expressions and create simple bilingual texts for classroom use. Students describe how language involves behaviours as well as words and share their experiences of communicating in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts.

Students identify the tones of the Vietnamese language and use tone markers when writing. They identify the features and purpose of a range of familiar texts. They provide examples of how language use varies according to the participants, social context and situation (for example, cho em/tặng bạn/biếu bà một món quà), and identify differences between ways of showing politeness in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts. They identify how languages change over time, providing examples of Vietnamese words borrowed from other languages such as English and French. They compare Vietnamese and English language use and cultural practices, identifying culture-specific terms and expressions.

5-6 Syllabus

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, learners have established communication and literacy skills in Vietnamese that enable them to explore aspects of Vietnamese language and culture as well as topical issues or themes drawn from other key learning areas. They are widening their social networks, experiences and communicative repertoires in both Vietnamese and English, and developing some biliteracy capabilities. They participate in collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. They are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context, and have an increased awareness of the world around them.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Purposeful language use in authentic contexts and shared activities in the classroom develop language skills and enhance communication and understanding. Learning how Vietnamese is structured reinforces their oracy and literacy. Learners develop their speaking skills by interacting with teachers, peers, family and local Vietnamese speakers to share their own and enquire about others’ experiences, interests and opinions. They have access to a broader range of vocabulary, and use strategies such as effective listening skills to support communication. They explore Vietnamese language and culture by engaging with simple folk tales (truyện cổ tích), fables (truyện ngụ ngôn) and folk songs (ca dao). They read extracts from both Vietnamese and Australian imaginative texts to engage with themes, characters and messages, and explore embedded cultural beliefs, values and practices. They read nonfiction texts to obtain information about significant places, figures and events relating to Vietnamese-speaking communities, and apply their language knowledge and skills to decode unknown words and predict meaning. Individual and group presentation and performance skills are developed through modelling, rehearsing and resourcing the content of presentations. Learners write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences, for example, creating imaginative narratives and weekly journals describing personal experiences to share with their peers.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Vietnamese in the classroom and in their extended social space, such as family, neighbourhood and community, for a widening range of purposes, for example, exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, and responding to experiences. They are able to work more independently, and also enjoy working collaboratively. They explore cultural aspects of communication, and use information and communication technologies (ICT) to support and enhance their learning.

Texts and resources

Learners interact with an increasing range of informative, persuasive and imaginative texts about their neighbourhood, Vietnamese-speaking communities and individuals. They refer to and use a broad range of grammatical and lexical resources to understand and communicate in Vietnamese. The use of dictionaries is encouraged to support language acquisition and accuracy of language use, ensuring the correct interpretation of similar words, for example, ‘old’ as già or cũ; ngon as ‘tasty’ or ‘delicious’.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners’ pronunciation, intonation and phrasing are more confident. They apply appropriate sentence structures, using nouns, adjectives, verbs, conjunctions and writing conventions to express opinions (for example, Tôi thích học tiếng Việt để nói chuyện với ông bà), and describe actions and events in relation to time and place (for example, Tuần trước tôi đi dự hội chợ Tết ở Richmond or Hôm qua ba mẹ tổ chức sinh nhật cho tôi ở nhà), in a range of written texts. They use comparative modes (for example, đẹp, đẹp hơn, đẹp nhất), possessive cases (for example, cái áo của anh, trường tôi) and time expressions (for example, năm trước, năm nay, tháng sau, hôm kia, ngày mai) to express themselves in a range of social situations. They reflect on language and how it is used in different ways to communicate. They explore cross-linguistic and intercultural influences on the Vietnamese language, such as words derived from Chinese (phụ huynh, sư phụ, phụ nữ) and French (ga ra, cà rốt and căn-tin). As they use Vietnamese for a wider range of interactions, they recognise how language features and expressions reflect cultural beliefs and practices (for example, con số hên, ngày tốt, tốt ngày, Cháu chúc ông bà sống lâu trăm tuổi, Chúc em bé ngoan ăn chóng lớn), and the cultural and social impact of some grammatical forms or vocabulary, for example, using informal or formal language to address others in specific contexts (Cháu biếu ông bà/Tôi tặng bạn/Anh cho em một món quà).

Level of support

While learners work both independently and collaboratively at this level, ongoing support and feedback are incorporated into activities such as the production of written texts. Support includes the provision of models, scaffolds, stimulus materials, and resources such as word charts, vocabulary lists and dictionaries.

The role of English

Classroom interactions are increasingly bilingual. Vietnamese is used primarily for communication, while English and Vietnamese are used for discussion of linguistic features and cultural practices, and for reflective tasks and explanations. Learners are given opportunities to think about personal and community identity. They engage with texts that reflect Vietnamese culture, and ask questions about cultural values and practices and how these relate to their own sense of identity when interacting in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts.



Interact and socialise with peers and the teacher to exchange information and opinions related to daily life, school, friends, leisure and social activities

[Key concepts: school, daily life, leisure, place; Key processes: socialising, sharing]

Collaborate with peers in group tasks and shared experiences to make choices and arrangements, organise events and complete transactions

[Key concept: negotiation; Key processes: making decisions and arrangements, transacting]

Engage in classroom interactions by asking and responding to questions and expressing opinions

[Key concepts: engagement, interaction; Key processes: responding, questioning]


Locate, classify and compare information relating to personal, social and natural worlds from a range of spoken, written, digital and visual texts

[Key concepts: place, media, private and public world; Key processes: listening, reading, viewing, locating, classifying]

Present ideas and information related to topics of interest in a range of formats, including digital presentations, for different audiences

[Key concepts: audience, context, presentation; Key processes: presenting, relating]


Engage with imaginative texts, including digital and multimodal, by identifying and describing key elements such as themes, settings, characters and events

[Key concepts: morality, experience, interconnection; Key processes: expressing, explaining]

Present, reinterpret or create alternative versions of imaginative texts, adapting events or characters to different modes and contexts

[Key concepts: character, event; Key processes: re-creating, transforming, performing]


Translate and interpret texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, noticing which words or concepts are easy or difficult to translate

[Key concepts: translation, equivalence; Key processes: judging, comparing, interpreting]

Produce a range of bilingual texts and resources for their own language learning and for the school community such as posters, menus, recipes or stories, including multimodal and digital forms

[Key concept: linguistic landscape; Key processes: translating, designing]


Reflect on their experiences of interacting in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts, and discuss adjustments to language and behaviours made when moving between languages

[Key concepts: society, background, belonging; Key processes: comparing, explaining]

Reflect on how own biography, including family origins, traditions and beliefs, impacts on identity and communication

[Key concepts: self, complexity, belief systems; Key processes: finding connections, reflecting, discussing]


Systems of language

Recognise and apply features of intonation and pronunciation and writing conventions used in different types of texts and contexts

[Key concepts: sound systems, pronunciation, punctuation; Key processes: recognising, applying]

Understand and use basic grammatical structures and explore a range of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and conjunctions, to express opinions, actions and events in time and place

[Key concepts: nouns, adjectives, verb forms, conjunctions; Key processes: understanding, expressing]

Understand the structure and language features of familiar texts such as recipes, recounts, narratives, procedures, emails and stories, recognising that linguistic choices depend on purpose, context and audience

[Key concepts: genre, language features; Key process: exploring]

Language variation and change

Understand that language is used differently in different contexts and situations, for example, at home, at school, at the market or at the doctor’s surgery

[Key concepts: variation, context; Key processes: analysing, explaining]

Explore how the Vietnamese language has changed over time and how it has been influenced by dialects and accents across regions of Vietnam

[Key concepts: regional variance, language exchange; Key processes: exploring, connecting]

Role of language and culture

Understand that language use is shaped by the values and beliefs of a community

[Key concepts: social norms, values, attitudes; Key processes: understanding, reflecting]

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Vietnamese for classroom interactions and to share ideas and opinions and express feelings. They exchange information about aspects of their daily life, school, friends and leisure activities. They make shared decisions and arrangements, organise events and complete transactions. When participating in classroom and collaborative activities, they ask and respond to questions, and express opinions, for example, Bạn thích ăn cơm hay phở? Tôi thích ăn phở vì nó thơm ngon và bổ. Students use specific features of pronunciation and intonation, including tones, when interacting. They locate, classify and compare information from a range of familiar texts, and share information and ideas on topics of interest in paragraphs or short texts selected to suit different audiences. They respond to imaginative texts by describing key elements, and create short imaginative texts or alternative versions of texts they have heard, read or viewed. Students use everyday language and topic-specific vocabulary to express ideas and opinions and discuss events in time and place. They construct sentences using nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and familiar expressions and idioms (for example, đen như mực, hiền như Bụt, có công mài sắt có ngày nên kim), to suit the context and purpose of communication. Students use simple sentences and form compound sentences using conjunctions such as và,hay/hoặc, vì, nhưng, nên. When writing, they apply appropriate spelling and punctuation in a range of sentence types. Students translate simple texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, identifying words that are easy or difficult to translate, and create bilingual texts for their own language learning and for the school community. Students identify ways in which their family origins, traditions and beliefs impact on their identity and influence how they communicate in Vietnamese and English.

Students form new words by adding or changing tone markers, initial consonants and vowels (for example, buổi, cuối, đuổi, tuổi, chuối), and identify how changes to pitch affect the meaning of words, for example, thương, thường, thưởng, thượng. They compare the structure and language features of familiar texts and identify ways in which audience, context and purpose influence language choices. They identify ways in which language use varies according to context and situation, for example, Chào các bạn. Kính thưa thầy/cô. Students provide examples of how the Vietnamese language has changed over time and identify ways in which regional dialects and accents have influenced the language, for example, dialectal variations such as bố/ba, mẹ/má, cái thìa/cái muỗng, Em tên gì?/Em tên chiĐi đâu?/Đi mô? They identify languagechoices that reflect the influence of Vietnamese values and beliefs, and apply culturally appropriate behaviours and language when communicating in a range of familiar situations.

7-8 Syllabus

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Vietnamese, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate about their immediate world and that of Vietnam and other Vietnamese-speaking communities.

Vietnamese language learning and use

The focus of learning shifts from the world of learners’ own experience and imagination to the wider world. Learners make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences relating to teenage life and interests. They increasingly access information from local sources and the internet to explore topical themes and issues such as friends and family, home and school, discipline and freedom, study and relaxation, appearance and personality, food and health, and the natural and built environments. They read a range of Vietnamese texts, such as diary entries, emails, letters, travel brochures, print or online reports and articles, to collate and use information about aspects of culture, both in Vietnam and in Vietnamese-speaking communities in the Australian context.

Vietnamese folk tales, common idioms, proverbs and folk songs (ca dao), such as Tấm Cám, Sơn Tinh Thủy Tinh; mò kim đáy biển; Ăn trái nhớ kẻ trồng cây; Cá không ăn muối cá ươn, Con cưỡng/cãi cha mẹ trăm đường con hư, are also introduced at this level to familiarise students with Vietnamese folk literature. Students learn to evaluate information and explore the representation of places, people, experiences and cultures in diverse sources. They use different processing strategies and their knowledge of language, increasingly drawing on understanding of text types, for example, when writing a recount or report. They produce descriptive, imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to present information and opinions on topics and concepts studied. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing to improve structure and clarify meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners work both collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use Vietnamese to interact with teachers, peers and local Vietnamese speakers, participating in authentic situations at home and school and within the local community. The context of interactions extends beyond the classroom and involves participating actively in planning individual events or celebrations, for example, Tuần tới chúng mình tổ chức sinh nhật cho Nam ở trường nhé. Cuối năm nay nhà mình đi chơi ở đâu? Con sẽ giúp ba mẹ quét dọn nhà cửa để ăn Tết. Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and on life experiences in different contexts and cultures. They listen to and view advertisements, announcements, conversations, television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Vietnamese language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communication technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Vietnamese in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Vietnamese-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners use appropriate pronunciation, accent and intonation patterns and spelling in a range of sentences, such as statements, questions and exclamations. By building their language knowledge, learners are able to develop and express more complex concepts in Vietnamese. They use a range of grammatical forms and structures to convey relationships between people, places, events and ideas. They employ a variety of sentence structures and grammatical features, including direct and indirect speech (Ba mẹ nói với tôi: Con nên chăm học’. Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học) to elaborate on ideas and opinions. Learners explore Vietnamese use of alliteration (vui vẻ, mát mẻ, hớn hở) and common onomatopoeic forms (ào ào, rì rào, đì đùng), as well as common expressions, idioms and proverbs, such as tiền rừng bạc biển, có chí thì nên, uống nước nhớ nguồn, to enrich their understanding and use of language. They learn to distinguish between the meanings of Vietnamese homonyms such as ăn (‘eat’ or ‘win’) and hay (‘interesting’, ‘usually’ or ‘or’), depending on the context of use. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language, for example, chữ hiếu, ơn nghĩa sinh thành, tình nghĩa thầy trò, ở hiền gặp lành, and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented, for example, con cưng/con yêu quý, lợi ích to lớn/thiệt hại đáng kể, hoàn cảnh khó khăn.

Level of support

The class will likely comprise background learners with a range of prior experience in studying Vietnamese. Learners are supported through multilevel and differentiated tasks. Consolidation of prior learning is balanced with the provision of new, engaging and challenging experiences. As they develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, learners are supported to self-monitor and reflect on language use in response to their experiences in diverse contexts.

The role of English

The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Vietnamese being the principal language of communication. English may be used separately or in conjunction with Vietnamese to compare and evaluate translations, or to express ideas, personal views and experiences. Learners continue to develop a metalanguage for thinking and communicating about language and culture from a bilingual perspective, and discussing connections within and across languages and cultures. They recognise significant Vietnamese practices (mừng tuổi, xông đất, lì xì, thờ cúng ông bà), values (lòng hiếu thảo, coi trọng giáo dục) and beliefs (đạo Phật, Nho giáo), and explore the impact of culture on language use, for example, honorific words (dạ/dạ thưa/thưa/kính thưa) and expressions such as kính lão đắc thọ, kính trên nhường dưới. They examine their personal and cultural identity and reflect on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved, comparing themselves with other people and generations, questioning their own assumptions and others’ interpretation of their linguistic, social and cultural practices.



Initiate and sustain interactions with peers and known adults on topics and issues related to social activities and personal interests

[Key concepts: discussion, exchange, interaction; Key processes: expressing, sharing]

Engage in collaborative tasks and transactions in real or simulated contexts that involve solving problems and making decisions

[Key concepts: collaboration, transaction; Key processes: collaborating, planning, negotiating]

Interact in classroom activities and discussions through asking and responding to open-ended questions, and offering and justifying opinions

[Key concepts: friendship, contribution; Key processes: responding, expressing, justifying, sharing]


Respond to different types of imaginative texts by explaining themes, messages and plot, and commenting on characters and events

[Key concepts: moral, representation, character, experience; Key processes: connecting, expressing, explaining, describing]

Create and present a range of texts, including multimodal and digital texts, involving imagined places, events, people and experiences, to entertain others

[Key concepts: imagination, experience; Key processes: entertaining, creating]


Locate, analyse and compare information relating to topics of shared interest or other learning areas from a range of print, visual, digital and online sources

[Key concepts: representation, media, leisure; Key processes: analysing, comparing, connecting]

Convey information and ideas on different topics or events, describing and comparing views, experiences and aspects of culture, using different modes of presentation for particular audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: representation, experience, audience, context; Key processes: conveying, describing, representing, comparing]


Translate and interpret texts, compare own translation of a range of texts with others’, and explore differences and strategies to overcome challenges in translation

[Key concepts: meaning, difference; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, considering the validity of different meanings]

Produce bilingual texts in multi-modal and digital forms for the school and wider community, and provide subtitles, commentaries or glossaries of cultural terms in either language to assist meaning

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: selecting, connecting inter-culturally]


Reflect on cultural differences between Vietnamese and English communicative styles, discussing how and why they modify language for different cultural perspectives

[Key concepts: communication, cultural perspectives; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, connecting]

Reflect on how and why being a speaker of Vietnamese contributes to their sense of identity and is important to their Vietnamese cultural heritage

[Key concepts: cultural heritage, identity; Key processes: reflecting, explaining]


Language variation and change

Understand how language use differs between spoken and written texts, and depends on participants, relationships and the purpose and mode of delivery

[Key concepts: language use, context; Key processes: understanding, explaining]

Explore the impact on language of social, cultural and intercultural influences such as globalisation and new technologies

[Key concepts: globalisation, technology; Key processes: exploring, researching, explaining]

Systems of language

Apply Vietnamese pronunciation, spelling and intonation patterns in a range of sentences such as statements, questions and exclamations

[Key concepts: sound systems, writing systems; Key process: applying]

Understand and use elements of Vietnamese grammar to organise and elaborate on ideas and opinions, such as direct/indirect speech and verbs to express modality

[Key concepts: grammatical knowledge, elaboration; Key processes: understanding, applying]

Expand understanding of how different types of texts are structured and employ particular language features to suit different audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: text structure, language features; Key process: applying]

Role of language and culture

Analyse the ways in which choices in language use reflect cultural ideas and perspectives, and reflect on how what is considered acceptable in communication varies across cultures

[Key concepts: perspectives, beliefs; Key processes: exploring, describing, comparing]

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Vietnamese to initiate and sustain interactions with peers, teachers, family members and other known adults, and to engage in transactions and exchange ideas and experiences. They ask and respond to open-ended questions such as Bạn nghĩ sao về vấn đề này? Tại sao bạn nghĩ như vậy?, and offer and justify their own opinions. They make enquiries (for example, Mẹ định tổ chức sinh nhật con như thế nào?) and suggestions (for example, Chúng mình tham gia biểu diễn văn nghệ trong trường đi!), to solve problems, make decisions and organise events and services. They use verbs such as nên, cần and phải to give advice or express their attitudes on topics of discussion. They make comparisons and state preferences using bằng, hơn and nhất. They rephrase statements or provide examples to clarify meaning, and elaborate on or justify ideas. When interacting, they use appropriate Vietnamese pronunciation and intonation patterns in a range of sentence structures. Students locate, analyse and compare information on topics of shared interest from a variety of texts, and convey information and ideas using modes of presentation selected to suit their audience and purpose. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions about the ways characters and events are represented and by explaining themes, messages and the storyline. They create texts with imaginary places, events, people and experiences in a range of forms, using direct speech (for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’), and indirect speech (for example, Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học). They manipulate a range of structures to express their own perspectives on experiences, events and issues. They use a variety of sentence types (affirmative, negative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) to express attitudes, opinions or emotions. They translate texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, using simple strategies to overcome challenges, and compare their versions with others’. They produce multimodal bilingual resources for the school and the wider community, providing annotations and commentaries to assist meaning. They reflect on the importance of language and behaviour in intercultural communication and how being a speaker of Vietnamese contributes to their own sense of identity.

Students analyse the use of punctuation and tone markers in different sentence types, including affirmative (for example, Em ăn cơm), negative (for example, Em không ăn cơm), interrogative (for example, Em ăn cơm không?), imperative (for example, Ăn cơm đi!) and exclamatory, for example, Em ăn nhiều cơm quá! They identify the meaning of Vietnamese homonyms (for example, hay may mean ‘usually’ or ‘interesting’) depending on the context. They analyse the structure and linguistic features of different types of texts and explain how these features are influenced by each text’s context, audience and purpose. They identify variations in language use between written and spoken texts and explain how language choices depend on the participants, relationships and purpose of the exchange. They identify the impact of social, cultural and intercultural influences on language, and use and explain Vietnamese words that have emerged through contact with other languages (for example, cà rốt, cà phê, căn-tin), and from globalisation and technological advances, such as toàn cầu hóa, công nghệ thông tin, nhật ký điện tử, nói chuyện qua mạng. They explain how cultural ideas and perspectives are embedded in language use and communication styles, for example, the importance of politeness and respect in Vietnamese language and culture.

9-10 Syllabus

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Vietnamese language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Vietnamese in these.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Learners are immersed in the Vietnamese language, initiating and engaging in discussions and debates on topics of interest, and responding to enquiries. They reflect on the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of their language use in interactions and make necessary adjustments. They learn to interpret information and evaluate values and practices from diverse perspectives and sources. They make connections with their own experiences to elaborate on and justify their point of view on topical issues or to explain how values and attitudes have remained the same or changed over time. Learners produce a range of texts, such as informative, narrative, descriptive, procedural or persuasive texts, for a variety of contexts, audiences and purposes. Through their engagement with diverse texts and resources, students explore how cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in texts and how language choices shape perspectives and meaning. They develop techniques and intercultural awareness in order to translate and mediate between languages and cultures.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Vietnamese speakers both locally and globally through a variety of modes of communication, including digital, online, collaborative performances and group discussions. The context of interaction extends beyond the classroom and involves investigating and reporting on issues in the local community and transacting with local Vietnamese speakers to negotiate services. These experiences provide learners with a sense of connectedness and purpose as Vietnamese and English speakers.

Texts and resources

Learners use diverse resources, such as Vietnamese newspapers, magazines, documentaries, films, stories, songs, television programs, entertainment performances, artworks and web pages, as references to assist them in discussing and researching Vietnamese language and culture. They explore a variety of text types, such as poems, articles, formal letters, interviews and speeches, and engage with a range of informative, historical or literary perspectives, views and debates.

Extracts from contemporary Vietnamese poems as well as short stories and diverse forms of Vietnamese artistic expression such as tranh dân gian Đông Hồ, tranh sơn dầu; dân ca, nhạc trẻ; cải lương, kịch, phim, are introduced to give learners an insight into Vietnamese folk, traditional and contemporary literature, arts and entertainment. Learners use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners explore Sino-Vietnamese words (phụ huynh, phi trường, hàng hải, giang sơn) and stylistic devices, such as repetition (đi nhanh, nói nhanh, ăn nhanh), similes (hiền như Bụt), personification (mưa nhớ thương ai) and rhetorical questions (Ba đồng một mớ trầu cay, Sao anh chẳng hỏi những ngày còn không?), to identify and convey enhanced meaning in communication. They use compound sentence structures, for example, Nếu trời mưa (thì) chúng tôi sẽ không đi chơi. Trời mưa khi chúng tôi đang đi chơi and conjunctions (càng … càng, vừa … vừa, chẳng những … mà còn), for a variety of communicative purposes in spoken and written texts. They examine the impact of generation, gender, media, technology and globalisation on Vietnamese language and culture to develop their awareness of language variation and evolution. They analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, and develop the language of reflection in Vietnamese.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system, with opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, for example, through portfolios, peer review and e-journalling.

The role of English

Vietnamese is predominantly used as the main medium for classroom interaction and content delivery. English is used only when necessary to allow for further explanation and discussion of more demanding concepts, particularly when making connections with other languages and cultures. Learners explore cultural diversity and gain a greater appreciation of their Vietnamese cultural heritage. They view their bilingualism and biculturalism as an asset for themselves and for Australia.



Initiate, sustain and extend interactions with peers and adults, exploring own and peers’ perspectives on youth culture, future aspirations and social experiences

[Key concepts: perspective, youth culture, issues; Key processes: discussing, justifying, commenting]

Participate in a range of collaborative activities that involve transactions and require negotiation and management of different opinions or behaviours

[Key concepts: negotiation, perspective; Key processes: managing, engaging]

Extend classroom interactions by offering, elaborating on, justifying and eliciting opinions and ideas

[Key concepts: exchange, discussion; Key processes: justifying, stating views, sharing opinions]


Explore a range of traditional and contemporary forms of art, literature and entertainment, by analysing values, purposes and language techniques, and discussing issues and themes

[Key concepts: imagination, morality, style; Key processes: exploring, relating, analysing]

Create a range of imaginative texts in different formats, including multi-modal and digital formats, for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: morality, emotion, journey; Key processes: experimenting, connecting, expressing]


Locate, synthesise, interpret and evaluate information and opinions from different perspectives relating to social issues and other areas of interest to teenagers

[Key concepts: perspective, interconnection, representation; Key processes: synthesising, evaluating, interpreting]

Convey information, ideas and viewpoints from different perspectives, selecting appropriate modes of presentation to achieve specific purposes for particular audiences in relevant contexts

[Key concepts: perspective, representation, purpose; Key processes: connecting, presenting, persuading, evaluating]


Translate and interpret texts for different audiences and contexts, and explore how cultural concepts, values and beliefs are represented differently in Vietnamese and English

[Key concepts: sensitivity, empathy; Key processes: analysing, interpreting]

Create bilingual texts in multi-modal forms, including digital, that reflect aspects of culture and language for a variety of Vietnamese and Australian audiences

[Key concepts: cultural literacy, interconnection; Key processes: judging adequacy, translating, interpreting]


Reflect on how meanings vary according to cultural assumptions that Vietnamese and English speakers bring to interactions, and take responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding

[Key concepts: cultural assumptions, judgement; Key processes: reflecting, relating inter-culturally]

Reflect on own cultural identity and how it is both shaped by and influences ways of communicating, thinking and behaving

[Key concepts: perception, identity, communication; Key processes: discussing, evaluating, reflecting]


Language variation and change

Analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes

[Key concepts: register, variation based on audience, context and purpose; Key processes: analysing, explaining]

Analyse the impact of media, technology, globalisation, migration and popular culture on Vietnamese language use in Vietnam and overseas

[Key concepts: impact, consequence; Key processes: analysing, explaining, comparing]

Systems of language

Understand the role of pronunciation, pauses, pace, intonation, fluency and appropriate writing conventions in effective communication and apply this knowledge to own interactions

[Key concept: intonation, fluency, meaning; Key process: applying]

Understand and use compound sentence structures, conjunctions, and a range of language features, such as similes or rhetorical questions, and combine them with knowledge of Sino-Vietnamese words and abstract vocabulary to enhance communication and achieve particular effects

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: understanding, applying]

Understand the relationship between purpose, audience, context, linguistic features, and textual and cultural elements associated with different types of personal, reflective, informative and persuasive texts

[Key concept: textual conventions; Key processes: discussing, applying]

Role of language and culture

Understand the reciprocal relationship between language, culture and communication and how this relationship impacts on attitudes and beliefs

[Key concepts: language, culture, reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, analysing]

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Vietnamese to initiate, sustain and extend interactions with peers, teachers and others in a range of contexts and for a range of purposes, such as to explore peers’ perspectives on youth culture and personal experiences. They use language spontaneously in the classroom, offering and justifying their own opinions and ideas and eliciting those of others. They negotiate with others to complete shared tasks and transactions, using evaluative language, for example, Ý kiến của bạn rất mới lạ/hợp thời. Bạn nói có lý nhưng tôi nghĩ rằng , to acknowledge others’ opinions and to challenge and manage alternative views. They use transitional sentences, such as Hay là mình thử làm thế này xem saoCòn vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường thì sao?, to manage shifts of topic and speaker. They speak fluently, pausing where appropriate, and use stress in extended sentences to enhance communication. Students gather, synthesise and evaluate information and opinions from different perspectives and create original texts for diverse audiences and purposes in a range of contexts. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by analysing their purpose and language techniques, forming their own position on the issues, themes and values addressed. They create a range of imaginative texts to express a variety of perspectives and values in modes of presentation selected to suit audience, purpose and context. They combine knowledge of Sino–Vietnamese words and abstract vocabulary with stylistic devices to enhance expression, create particular effects and influence others, for example, through repetition (for example, đi nhanh, nói nhanh, ăn nhanh), similes (for example, mắt sáng như sao), personification (for example, lá sầu), onomatopoeia (for example, ào, rì rào, đùng), and rhetorical questions, for example, Chẳng lẽ mình là người Việt mà lại không biết nói tiếng Việt?They adjust their own language use when addressing a different audience or in a different context, for example, shifting from an informal to a respectful tone, and from simple to sophisticated vocabulary or structures. They convert informal everyday speech (for example, ai cũng biết hết) into formal register (for example, như quý vị đã biết), as appropriate. Students use conjunctions, such as trước tiên, sau cùng, ngoài ra, hơn nữa, do đó, càng càng, vừa vừa, chẳng những… mà còn, nếu…thì, tuy… nhưng, vì…cho nên, to sequence and connect ideas in texts, and apply accurate spelling to enhance communication. They translate and interpret texts and createbilingual resources for Vietnamese and English-speaking audiences, explaining how cultural concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in language. They compare views on the relationship between cultural identity and communication, question cultural assumptions, and modify languageand behaviours in intercultural interactions as appropriate.

Students explain how pronunciation, intonation, pace and rhythm in spoken Vietnamese can express different emotions, for example, Con thích cái áo mà mẹ tặng cho con hôm sinh nhật vừa rồi, and signal clause boundaries and emphasis. They explain why Sino-Vietnamese words are used in formal contexts, for example, hội phụ nữ (not hội đàn bà) and viện dưỡng lão (not nhà người già). They analyse a range of personal, informative, reflective and persuasive texts and explain the relationship between context, purpose, audience, linguistic features and textual and cultural elements. They analyse how language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, explaining why they adjust their vocabulary and level of politeness and formality in intercultural interactions. They explain the impact of media, technology, globalisation, migration and popular culture on Vietnamese language use in both Australia and Vietnam. They explain the reciprocal nature of the relationship between language, culture and communication, identifying its impact on attitudes and beliefs.

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